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Dr. Andy Galpin: How to Build Strength, Muscle Size & Endurance | Huberman Lab Podcast #65



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Welcome to the Huberman Lab Podcast,
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where we discuss science and science-based tools
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for everyday life.
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I'm Andrew Huberman,
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and I'm a professor of neurobiology and ophthalmology
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at Stanford School of Medicine.
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Today, my guest is Dr. Andy Galpin.
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Dr. Galpin is a full and tenured professor
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in the Department of Kinesiology
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at California State University in Fullerton.
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He is also a world expert
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in all things exercise science and kinesiology.
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Today, you are going to hear
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what is essentially a masterclass in how to build fitness,
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no matter what level of fitness you happen to have.
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He talks about how to build endurance
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and the multiple types of endurance.
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He talks about how to build strength and hypertrophy,
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which is the growth of muscle fibers.
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So if you're seeking to get stronger
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or build bigger muscles or build endurance
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or all of those things, today, you're going to learn how.
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You're also going to learn how to build flexibility,
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how to hydrate properly for exercise.
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And we'll also talk about nutrition and supplementation.
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What makes Dr. Galpin so unique is his ability
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to span all levels of exercise science.
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He has the ability to clearly communicate the sets
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and repetition schemes that one would want to follow,
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for instance, to build more strength
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or to build larger muscles.
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He also clearly describes exactly how to train
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if you want to build more endurance
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or enhance cardiovascular function.
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What's highly unique about Dr. Galpin
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and the information he teaches
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and the way he communicates that information
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is that he can take specific recommendations
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of how recreational exercisers
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or even professional athletes ought to train
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for their specific goals and link that
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to specific mechanisms.
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That is the specific changes that need to occur
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in the nervous system and in muscle fibers
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and indeed right down to the genetics of individual cells
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in your brain and body
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in order for those exercise adaptations to occur.
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It's truly rare to find somebody that can span
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so many different levels of analysis
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and who is able to communicate all those levels
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of understanding in such a clear and actionable way.
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Indeed, Dr. Galpin is one of just a handful of people
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to which I and many others look when they want to make sure
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that the information that they're getting about exercise
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is gleaned from quality peer-reviewed studies,
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hands-on experience with a wide variety
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of research subjects, meaning everyday people,
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all the way up to professional athletes
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in a wide variety of sports.
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So it's no surprise that he's not only one
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of the most knowledgeable,
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but also the most trusted voices in exercise science.
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Dr. Galpin is also an avid communicator
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of zero cost to consumer information about exercise science.
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You can find him on Instagram at Dr. Andy Galpin
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and also on Twitter at Dr. Andy Galpin.
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Both places he provides terrific information
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about recent studies, both from his laboratory
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and from other laboratories,
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more in-depth protocols of the sort
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that you'll hear about today.
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So if you're not already following him,
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be sure to do so.
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He provides only the best information.
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He's extremely nuanced and precise and clear
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in delivering that information.
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I'm certain that by the end of today's conversation,
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you'll come away with a tremendous amount of new knowledge
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that you can devote to your exercise pursuits.
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I'm pleased to announce
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that I'm hosting two live events this May.
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The first live event will be hosted
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in Seattle, Washington on May 17th.
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The second live event will be hosted
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in Portland, Oregon on May 18th.
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Both are part of a lecture series entitled
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The Brain Body Contract,
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during which I will discuss science
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and science-based tools for mental health,
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physical health, and performance.
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And I should point out that while some
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of the material I'll cover will overlap
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with information covered here on the Huberman Lab Podcast
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and on various social media posts,
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most of the information I will cover is going to be distinct
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from information covered on the podcast or elsewhere.
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So once again, it's Seattle on May 17th,
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Portland on May 18th.
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You can access tickets by going to hubermanlab.com slash tour
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and I hope to see you there.
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Before we begin, I'd like to emphasize
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that this podcast is separate
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from my teaching and research roles at Stanford.
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It is, however, part of my desire
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and effort to bring zero cost to consumer information
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about science and science-related tools
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to the general public.
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In keeping with that theme,
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I'd like to thank the sponsors of today's podcast.
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Our first sponsor is Athletic Greens.
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so I'm delighted that they're sponsoring the podcast.
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The reason I started taking Athletic Greens
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and the reason I still take Athletic Greens
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once or twice a day is that it helps me cover
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In addition, it has probiotics,
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I've done a couple of episodes now
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and the ways in which the microbiome interacts
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If you'd like to try Athletic Greens,
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Many of us are still deficient in vitamin D3,
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which means smart drugs.
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Now, to be honest, I am not a fan of the term nootropics.
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I don't believe in smart drugs in the sense that
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And now for my discussion with Dr. Andy Galpin.
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Welcome, Dr. Professor Andy Galpin.
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It's been a long time coming.
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We have friends in common,
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but this is actually the first time
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we've sat down face to face.
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Yeah, I'm very excited.
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Yeah, there are only a handful,
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meaning about three or four people who I trust enough
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in the exercise physiology space that when they speak,
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I not only listen, but I modify my protocols.
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And you are among those three or four people.
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So first of all, a debt of gratitude.
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Thank you.
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You've greatly shaped the protocols that I use.
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And I know there's far more for me and for others to learn.
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So you're a professor, you teach in university,
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and you have a tremendous range of levels of exploration.
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Muscle biopsy, literally images down the microscope,
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all the way to training professional athletes
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and everything in between.
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So you are truly an N of one.
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And just to start us off,
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I would love to have you share with us
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what you think most everybody,
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or even everybody should know
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about principles of strength training,
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principles of endurance training,
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and principles of let's call it hypertrophy power
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and the other sort of categories of training.
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And this could be very top contour,
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but what do you think everybody on planet earth
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should know about these categories
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of personal and athletic development?
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Well, that's a great first question.
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Holy cow, I think I'll start it this way.
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I tend to think about,
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there's about nine different adaptations
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you can get from exercise.
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Fat loss is not one of those.
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It is a by-product,
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but that's not really what I'm getting at.
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And so we can kind of categorize everything like that.
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And what we can talk about
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are what are the concepts
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that you need to hit within each one.
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And then you could have infinite discussion
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of the different methodologies, right?
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And so that first thing to hit
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is the concepts are actually fairly few,
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but the methods are many, right?
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People have said that in iterations throughout time.
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So if you walk from the very beginning,
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the first one to think about
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is what we'll just call skill.
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So this is improving anything from say a golf swing
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to a squatting technique to running.
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And this is just simply moving mechanically
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how you want your body to move.
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I'm just gonna globally call that skill.
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From there, we're gonna get into speed.
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So this is moving as fast as possible.
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The next one is power.
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And power is a function of speed,
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but it's also a function of the next one, which is strength.
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So if you actually multiply strength by speed,
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you get power.
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And the reason I'm making this distinction, by the way,
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is some of these are very close
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and I'm going in a specific order on purpose here.
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For example, power is, like I just said,
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it's a function of speed and strength.
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So if you improve speed, you've also likely improved power,
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but not necessarily, right?
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Cause it could have come from the force direction either.
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So there's carry over.
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So like a lot of things that you would do
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for the development of strength and power,
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they are somewhat similar, but then there's differences,
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right?
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So things that you would do correctly for power
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would really not develop much strength and vice versa.
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So we can get into all these details later.
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Once you get past strength,
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and the next one kind of down the list is hypertrophy.
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This is muscle size, right?
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Growing muscle mass is one way to think about it.
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After hypertrophy, you get into these categories
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of the next one is,
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these are all globally endurance based issues.
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And the very first one is called muscular endurance.
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So this is your ability to do,
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how many pushups can you do in one minute?
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You know, things like that.
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Past muscular endurance,
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you're now into more of an energetic
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or even cardiovascular fatigue.
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So you've left the local muscle
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and you're now into the entire physiological system
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and its ability to produce and sustain work.
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And we can get into a bunch of differentiations
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with an endurance,
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but just to keep it really simple right now,
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the very first one, think about this as,
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I call this anaerobic power, right?
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So this is your ability to produce a lot of work
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for say 30 seconds to maybe one minute,
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kind of two minutes like that.
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The next one down then is more closely aligned
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to what we'll call your VO2 max.
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So this is your ability to kind of do the same thing,
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but more of a time domain of say three to 12 minutes.
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So this is gonna be a maximum heart rate,
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but it's gonna be well past just max heart rate.
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Then after that,
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we have what I call long duration endurance.
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So this is your ability to sustain work.
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The time domain doesn't matter
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in terms of how fast you're going.
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It's how long can you sustain work?
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This is 30 plus minutes of no break like that.
link |
00:12:50.780
So as just an high level overview,
link |
00:12:53.180
those are the different things you can target.
link |
00:12:56.280
And again, some of those cross over
link |
00:12:58.560
and some are actually a little bit
link |
00:13:00.320
contrary to the other ones.
link |
00:13:01.400
So pushing towards one
link |
00:13:02.840
is maybe gonna sacrifice something else.
link |
00:13:05.000
So as an overall start,
link |
00:13:06.680
that's really what we're looking at.
link |
00:13:08.780
Within all of those though,
link |
00:13:09.920
they do have similar concepts in terms of,
link |
00:13:12.280
there's a handful of things you have got to do
link |
00:13:14.960
to make all of those things work.
link |
00:13:16.560
And we could talk about as many of those as you want,
link |
00:13:18.280
but one of them is functionally called progressive overload.
link |
00:13:22.380
So whichever one you're trying to improve at,
link |
00:13:25.080
if you want to continue to improve,
link |
00:13:26.960
you have to have some method of overload.
link |
00:13:29.460
And as you well know, you've talked about a lot,
link |
00:13:32.500
adaptation physiologically happens
link |
00:13:34.580
as a by-product of stress.
link |
00:13:36.360
So you have to push a system.
link |
00:13:37.720
So if you continue to do,
link |
00:13:38.720
say the exact same workout over time,
link |
00:13:41.400
you better not expect much improvement.
link |
00:13:43.280
You can keep maintenance,
link |
00:13:44.280
but you're not going to be adding additional stress.
link |
00:13:46.940
So in general,
link |
00:13:48.180
you have to have some sort of progressive overload.
link |
00:13:50.060
And we can talk in detail
link |
00:13:51.080
about what that means for each category,
link |
00:13:53.160
but this could come from adding more weights.
link |
00:13:55.440
This could come from adding more repetitions.
link |
00:13:57.800
It could come from doing it more often in a week.
link |
00:14:00.700
It could come from adding complexity to the movement.
link |
00:14:04.040
So going from say a partial range of motion
link |
00:14:05.760
to a full range of motion or adding other variables.
link |
00:14:08.440
So there's a lot of different ways to progress,
link |
00:14:10.760
but you have to have some sort of movement forward.
link |
00:14:13.340
So if you have this kind of routine
link |
00:14:14.680
where you've built Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday
link |
00:14:17.260
or something, and you just do that infinitely,
link |
00:14:20.440
you're not going to get very far.
link |
00:14:21.780
So that's, I guess, the most high level overview
link |
00:14:24.240
of all the things people can go after.
link |
00:14:26.600
And then we can go from whatever direction
link |
00:14:28.440
you want from there.
link |
00:14:29.840
Well, I'd love to do the deep dive
link |
00:14:31.200
on each one of these for several hours.
link |
00:14:34.520
But, and I imagine that over time we probably will.
link |
00:14:40.440
I'd love to chat about a couple of these
link |
00:14:42.120
in a bit more depth.
link |
00:14:43.120
So in terms of defining
link |
00:14:45.000
what the progressive overload variables are
link |
00:14:47.880
for these different categories,
link |
00:14:49.200
maybe we could hit the two most common combinations
link |
00:14:53.560
of these nine things.
link |
00:14:54.440
The first one being strength and hypertrophy.
link |
00:14:58.440
And maybe we could lump power in there.
link |
00:15:00.920
Maybe not, you're the exercise physiologist.
link |
00:15:04.320
But strength and hypertrophy,
link |
00:15:05.360
which at least bear some relationship.
link |
00:15:07.500
And then maybe separately,
link |
00:15:09.280
we could explore sustained work endurance,
link |
00:15:12.840
this 30 minutes or longer continuously,
link |
00:15:14.600
because I think many people train in that regime.
link |
00:15:17.700
And probably something like the VO2 max anaerobic as well,
link |
00:15:23.440
because I know that a number of people now
link |
00:15:25.080
incorporate so-called hit
link |
00:15:26.700
or high intensity interval training.
link |
00:15:28.260
I think with the hopes of either shortening their workouts
link |
00:15:31.440
and or gaining some additional cardiovascular benefit.
link |
00:15:35.400
So if we could start with strength and hypertrophy,
link |
00:15:38.280
I know many people want to be stronger.
link |
00:15:40.480
They want to grow larger muscles
link |
00:15:42.000
or at least maintain what they have.
link |
00:15:43.780
So what are the progressive overload principles
link |
00:15:46.580
that are most effective over time
link |
00:15:49.800
for strength and hypertrophy?
link |
00:15:51.560
Yeah, okay, so I'll actually go a little step back.
link |
00:15:54.720
With every one of those categories I talked about,
link |
00:15:57.580
you have what we call your modifiable variables.
link |
00:16:00.080
So this is a very short list
link |
00:16:01.440
of all the things you can modify,
link |
00:16:04.940
the different variables within your workout
link |
00:16:06.520
that can be modified that will change the outcome.
link |
00:16:08.780
Fancy way of saying, if you do this differently,
link |
00:16:11.720
then you're gonna get a different result.
link |
00:16:14.080
So modifiable variables.
link |
00:16:15.600
The very first one of those is called choice.
link |
00:16:17.560
So this is the exercise choice that you select.
link |
00:16:20.000
Now, one of, I'm gonna go double back here.
link |
00:16:23.560
So I'm kind of doing a little bit of inception.
link |
00:16:25.080
So follow me here as I'm going up a layer
link |
00:16:26.520
to come down a couple layers.
link |
00:16:29.560
I have these fundamental laws of strength and conditioning
link |
00:16:31.840
that are kind of like a little bit of a joke,
link |
00:16:35.240
but progressive overload is one of those laws.
link |
00:16:36.960
Another one of those laws is your exercises themselves
link |
00:16:40.760
do not determine adaptations.
link |
00:16:42.840
So here's what I mean.
link |
00:16:43.780
If you're like, I want to get stronger,
link |
00:16:45.280
you can't select an exercise.
link |
00:16:47.400
That doesn't determine you getting strong.
link |
00:16:49.680
If you don't do the exercise correctly,
link |
00:16:51.800
and I'm not even referring to the technique,
link |
00:16:53.560
that of course matters,
link |
00:16:55.100
but if you don't execute it in the right fashion,
link |
00:16:57.620
then you're not going to get that adaptation.
link |
00:16:59.100
So if you choose, I want to get stronger,
link |
00:17:00.540
I'm gonna do a bench press.
link |
00:17:01.720
Well, if you do the wrong set range,
link |
00:17:03.580
the wrong repetition range, the wrong speed,
link |
00:17:05.120
you won't get strength.
link |
00:17:05.960
You maybe get muscular endurance
link |
00:17:06.940
and very little strength adaptation.
link |
00:17:08.680
So the exercise selection itself is important,
link |
00:17:11.540
but it does not determine the outcome adaptation.
link |
00:17:14.280
So the very first thing that you need to think about
link |
00:17:16.080
if you're like, I want to get stronger or add muscle
link |
00:17:18.560
is not the exercise choice, right?
link |
00:17:20.840
It is the application of the exercise.
link |
00:17:22.480
What are the sets?
link |
00:17:23.320
What are the reps?
link |
00:17:24.140
What are the rest ranges that you're using?
link |
00:17:25.880
That's gonna be your primary determinant.
link |
00:17:28.280
Now, some exercises are certainly better
link |
00:17:31.320
for some adaptations.
link |
00:17:32.160
For example, a deadlift is probably not a great exercise
link |
00:17:35.720
to do for long duration endurance.
link |
00:17:37.360
Like you could theoretically do 30 straight minutes
link |
00:17:39.260
of deadlifting, but it's probably not our best choice, right?
link |
00:17:42.120
It's probably a pretty good choice for strength development,
link |
00:17:44.360
right, because you're gonna do a low repetition
link |
00:17:46.080
high set range.
link |
00:17:47.360
You could theoretically do bicep curls for power,
link |
00:17:51.760
but probably not your best choice, right?
link |
00:17:53.560
Single joint isolation movement is not the best
link |
00:17:55.960
for developing power.
link |
00:17:57.000
If you've ever done a bicep curl as fast
link |
00:17:59.000
as you possibly can, like that's not gonna go well.
link |
00:18:01.760
So in theory, any exercise can produce any adaptation
link |
00:18:05.720
given the execution is performed properly.
link |
00:18:08.400
So now that we've understood that a little bit,
link |
00:18:11.000
the exercise itself does not determine the adaptation.
link |
00:18:14.280
Coming within each one of these categories,
link |
00:18:17.040
exercise choice is an important variable
link |
00:18:18.840
because it does lend you to things
link |
00:18:21.220
like what movement pattern you're in.
link |
00:18:23.240
So in other words, if you wanna get stronger
link |
00:18:26.120
and you're thinking, okay, what exercise do I do?
link |
00:18:28.720
You need to think a little bit about
link |
00:18:31.180
what muscle groups do I wanna use?
link |
00:18:32.620
And that's gonna be leading you towards the exercise choice.
link |
00:18:35.700
For example, I wanna use my quads more.
link |
00:18:38.400
Okay, fine.
link |
00:18:39.660
Maybe you're gonna choose more of a front squat
link |
00:18:41.800
type of variation, a goblet squat.
link |
00:18:43.160
So the bar, the load is in front of you.
link |
00:18:45.360
If you wanna emphasize maybe more of your hamstrings
link |
00:18:47.400
and glutes, you're gonna maybe put a barbell on your back
link |
00:18:49.880
or do a different one.
link |
00:18:51.180
So the exercise choice is important to the prescription
link |
00:18:54.980
because it's gonna determine a lot of your success.
link |
00:18:57.660
Okay, another kind of simpler way to think about this.
link |
00:19:01.380
If you're a beginner or moderate to intermediate,
link |
00:19:04.520
or maybe you don't have a coach,
link |
00:19:06.580
you probably wanna hedge towards an exercise selection
link |
00:19:09.800
that is a little bit easier technically.
link |
00:19:12.280
So you maybe don't wanna do a barbell back squat.
link |
00:19:14.000
It's actually a pretty complicated movement.
link |
00:19:15.880
Maybe you wanna do a little bit more of,
link |
00:19:18.420
again, a goblet squat or even use some machines
link |
00:19:20.900
or a split squat, something that's a little bit simpler
link |
00:19:22.860
because you don't have a coach,
link |
00:19:23.980
you're not a professional athlete.
link |
00:19:25.980
The likelihood of success is higher
link |
00:19:27.480
and the risk has now gone lower.
link |
00:19:30.000
So the very first variable within all of these
link |
00:19:31.940
is the exercise choice.
link |
00:19:33.540
The second one is the intensity.
link |
00:19:34.980
And that refers to, in this context, not perceived effort.
link |
00:19:39.100
Like, wow, that was a really intense workout.
link |
00:19:40.940
It is quite literally either a percentage
link |
00:19:42.460
of your one rep at max
link |
00:19:44.180
or a percentage of your maximum heart rate or VO2 max.
link |
00:19:46.620
So for the strength-based things,
link |
00:19:48.780
you wanna think about what's the percentage
link |
00:19:50.180
of the maximum weight I could lift one time.
link |
00:19:51.880
And that's what we're gonna call one rep max.
link |
00:19:54.500
Or it's a percentage of my heart rate, right?
link |
00:19:56.140
So if I tell you to get on a bike
link |
00:19:57.540
and I want you to do intervals and I want you at 75%,
link |
00:20:00.300
I'm typically referring to 75% of your max heart rate
link |
00:20:02.900
or VO2 max or something like that.
link |
00:20:04.820
If I tell you to do squats at 75%,
link |
00:20:07.380
that means 75% of the maximum amount of weight
link |
00:20:09.480
you could lift one time or close.
link |
00:20:12.700
In terms of determining one rep max,
link |
00:20:14.780
I confess I've never actually taken the one rep max
link |
00:20:17.700
for any exercise,
link |
00:20:19.140
but I have some internal sense of what that might be
link |
00:20:22.300
or what range it might be.
link |
00:20:24.620
Is it necessary for people to assess
link |
00:20:27.500
their one repetition maximum
link |
00:20:29.660
before going into these sorts of programs?
link |
00:20:32.840
No, not at all.
link |
00:20:33.860
I think a more intuitive way is to take a repetition range.
link |
00:20:39.940
Well, you can do this a couple of different ways.
link |
00:20:41.260
So there are equations you can run
link |
00:20:44.080
and you can just Google these anywhere.
link |
00:20:45.940
And these are called conversion charts.
link |
00:20:47.500
And so it says, okay,
link |
00:20:48.820
if I did 75 pounds on my bench press
link |
00:20:51.200
and I did it eight times,
link |
00:20:52.800
you can just run an estimate to say,
link |
00:20:54.220
okay, you're probably going to be able to bench
link |
00:20:55.700
about 95 pounds for one rep max or something.
link |
00:20:58.740
So that's a very easy conversion chart.
link |
00:21:00.880
So just pick a load that you feel comfortable with,
link |
00:21:02.700
but it's kind of heavy, but not like crazy heavy.
link |
00:21:05.860
And do as many repetitions as you can.
link |
00:21:07.620
What a really good technique.
link |
00:21:08.980
And then look what that number would be.
link |
00:21:11.080
So conversion charts-
link |
00:21:11.920
Are they safer than doing one repetition maximum?
link |
00:21:14.680
For the general public who has, again, no coaching,
link |
00:21:17.980
it's safer.
link |
00:21:18.800
For a professional athlete, it's not any safer,
link |
00:21:20.800
but, or not even a professional athlete,
link |
00:21:22.860
but a trained person with a coach.
link |
00:21:24.700
But for most people, yeah,
link |
00:21:25.900
that's a good way to go about it.
link |
00:21:27.060
You can also just kind of do it with feel
link |
00:21:30.040
in the sense that,
link |
00:21:31.560
say you want to do a set of five repetitions
link |
00:21:34.180
and you do the load and you think,
link |
00:21:36.260
I could have done one or two more.
link |
00:21:38.020
And then you kind of have an idea
link |
00:21:39.540
of what that number is going to be.
link |
00:21:41.460
If you think, man, that last one,
link |
00:21:43.140
I had to kind of really, really, really get after it,
link |
00:21:45.620
then maybe just call that that number, right?
link |
00:21:50.100
So you don't have to get overly concerned.
link |
00:21:51.780
In fact, when we start getting into these number ranges,
link |
00:21:55.000
you're going to see that they're all ranges.
link |
00:21:57.060
We're not going to give a specific 95%
link |
00:21:59.500
for one of these exact reasons.
link |
00:22:01.140
It's not that precise for most of them.
link |
00:22:03.820
In fact, some of them, like hypertrophy,
link |
00:22:05.140
have enormous ranges that you almost can't miss.
link |
00:22:08.740
So the intensity in that case doesn't even matter
link |
00:22:11.080
for the most part,
link |
00:22:11.920
because that's not the primary determinant.
link |
00:22:14.320
Some of these you're going to see intensity
link |
00:22:15.700
is the determinant,
link |
00:22:16.540
and some of these you're going to see volume
link |
00:22:18.120
is the true determinant.
link |
00:22:20.460
So intensity though is the second one.
link |
00:22:22.740
Choice was the very first one,
link |
00:22:25.260
manipulatable variable.
link |
00:22:26.620
Intensity was the second one.
link |
00:22:28.500
The third one is what we call volume.
link |
00:22:30.060
And so this is just how many reps
link |
00:22:31.300
and how many sets are you doing, right?
link |
00:22:32.620
So if you're going to do three sets of 10,
link |
00:22:33.900
that volume would be 30, right?
link |
00:22:36.180
Five sets of five, that volume is 25.
link |
00:22:37.940
It's just a simple equation.
link |
00:22:39.740
How much work are you totally doing?
link |
00:22:41.940
The next one past that is called rest intervals.
link |
00:22:44.140
So this is the amount of time you're taking
link |
00:22:45.580
in between typically a set.
link |
00:22:48.100
Then from there, you have progression,
link |
00:22:49.840
which is what we started to talk about,
link |
00:22:50.940
this progressive overload.
link |
00:22:51.940
Are you increasing by weight or reps
link |
00:22:54.020
or rest intervals or complexity or whatever?
link |
00:22:58.140
So all of those things can be changed
link |
00:23:02.660
as a method of progression.
link |
00:23:03.980
And so maybe you want to go progressing
link |
00:23:06.580
from a single joint exercise,
link |
00:23:08.380
like a leg extension on a machine,
link |
00:23:11.380
and you want to progress by moving
link |
00:23:12.660
to a whole body movement like a squat.
link |
00:23:15.860
That in and of itself, you don't have to change the load
link |
00:23:18.300
or the reps or the rest.
link |
00:23:19.660
That is a representation of progressive overload.
link |
00:23:22.120
And it's probably a pretty good place to start
link |
00:23:23.940
because number one, especially for beginners,
link |
00:23:26.780
you want to make sure that the movement pattern is correct.
link |
00:23:29.820
Don't worry about intensity.
link |
00:23:30.920
Don't worry about rep ranges or any of these things.
link |
00:23:33.060
You need to learn to move correctly
link |
00:23:35.220
and you need to give your body some time
link |
00:23:37.060
to develop some tissue tolerance
link |
00:23:39.020
so that you're not getting overtly sore.
link |
00:23:41.740
In general, soreness is a terrible proxy
link |
00:23:44.320
for exercise quality.
link |
00:23:45.660
It's a really bad way to estimate
link |
00:23:47.580
whether it was a good or a bad workout,
link |
00:23:48.940
especially for people in that beginner to middle
link |
00:23:51.880
to moderate.
link |
00:23:52.720
In fact, even for our professional athletes,
link |
00:23:55.100
we do not use soreness as a metric of a good workout.
link |
00:23:58.820
It's a really bad idea for a bunch of reasons.
link |
00:24:02.180
On the same token, because stress is required
link |
00:24:03.960
for adaptation, you don't want to leave at the gym
link |
00:24:06.820
and feel like, I don't really do much.
link |
00:24:09.380
There has to be there.
link |
00:24:10.220
So if you think about soreness on a scale of one to 10,
link |
00:24:12.860
you probably want to spend most of your time
link |
00:24:14.660
in like the three.
link |
00:24:16.180
You mean post-exercise, in between workouts.
link |
00:24:19.260
Totally.
link |
00:24:20.100
And I know we'll talk about recovery extensively later,
link |
00:24:23.100
but if one body part or set of body parts is sore,
link |
00:24:27.360
is that an indication that one should stay out of training?
link |
00:24:30.980
I would imagine the answer is no in most cases.
link |
00:24:35.180
And secondarily to that, if a particular muscle is sore,
link |
00:24:39.780
does that mean that muscle is not ready
link |
00:24:41.620
to be trained again?
link |
00:24:42.740
Yeah, the answer to both of those is the same,
link |
00:24:44.980
which is no, right?
link |
00:24:46.780
You can certainly train a sore muscle.
link |
00:24:48.880
You need to, I guess, have a little bit of feel on that.
link |
00:24:52.820
So if you're a sore of like,
link |
00:24:54.980
okay, and you're moving around a little bit
link |
00:24:56.600
and you're like, man, this is a little bit sore,
link |
00:24:58.060
you can train.
link |
00:24:59.020
If you're like, I can't sit on the couch without crying
link |
00:25:01.980
because my glutes are so sore,
link |
00:25:03.380
like we probably don't need to train again, right?
link |
00:25:06.460
Does whimpering count as crying?
link |
00:25:09.660
Yeah, in that particular case, I'd say,
link |
00:25:12.160
you've actually gone to a place of detriment
link |
00:25:14.780
because now you're going to have to skip a training session
link |
00:25:17.620
and now you're behind.
link |
00:25:18.680
So your actual total volume, say across the month,
link |
00:25:21.380
is actually gonna be lower because you went way too hard
link |
00:25:23.620
in those workouts,
link |
00:25:24.780
had to take too many days off in between.
link |
00:25:27.060
You're going to see that you're going to cover less distance
link |
00:25:28.700
over the course of a month or six months or even a year.
link |
00:25:31.780
So you want to walk a pretty fine line.
link |
00:25:33.560
And for most people, I would say hedge a little bit
link |
00:25:35.980
on the side of less sore than more sore
link |
00:25:38.980
because frequency is very, very important
link |
00:25:41.440
for almost all these adaptations.
link |
00:25:43.300
At training frequency.
link |
00:25:44.660
Which is the last modifiable variable, right?
link |
00:25:47.060
Frequency, which is how many times per week are you,
link |
00:25:50.340
are you doing that thing?
link |
00:25:51.940
So those are kind of our global things
link |
00:25:55.780
that we can play with.
link |
00:25:56.600
So when I'm trying to manipulate
link |
00:25:57.940
and get strength versus hypertrophy,
link |
00:26:00.700
or you know what, I want like a little bit of both,
link |
00:26:03.420
all those variables are the things
link |
00:26:04.720
that are going through my mind.
link |
00:26:05.560
Which one do I need to move in which direction
link |
00:26:07.540
so that I can get this outcome
link |
00:26:09.060
and not this outcome over here?
link |
00:26:11.540
For example, some folks might want to get stronger,
link |
00:26:13.600
but not put muscle mass on.
link |
00:26:15.820
Some folks are just kind of want both.
link |
00:26:17.600
And that's a lot of the general public.
link |
00:26:18.860
I want to get a little stronger and a little bit more muscle.
link |
00:26:20.500
Great.
link |
00:26:21.320
But there are instances where people
link |
00:26:23.060
for performance reasons or for purely personal preference,
link |
00:26:26.540
like I don't want to get any more muscle, great,
link |
00:26:28.380
but I want to get stronger.
link |
00:26:29.820
Awesome.
link |
00:26:30.660
If you manipulate those variables correctly,
link |
00:26:31.860
you can get exactly that.
link |
00:26:33.300
Very little development in muscle size
link |
00:26:35.260
and a lot of development in strength.
link |
00:26:36.820
And this is why we continue to break world records
link |
00:26:39.300
in sports like powerlifting and weightlifting
link |
00:26:40.980
that have weight classes.
link |
00:26:42.500
So there's a top number that we can hit
link |
00:26:44.260
in terms of body size,
link |
00:26:45.540
but yet we continue to get stronger and faster.
link |
00:26:47.980
So this is very possible if you understand
link |
00:26:49.780
how to manipulate all those variables.
link |
00:26:52.300
So that being said, we can start off with,
link |
00:26:53.900
you wanted to go strength and-
link |
00:26:55.020
Yeah, strength.
link |
00:26:55.860
And I love that you mentioned the fact
link |
00:26:57.740
that it is possible to increase strength
link |
00:26:59.440
without increasing muscle size,
link |
00:27:01.180
at least not dramatically,
link |
00:27:02.280
because I think it's not just weight class athletes.
link |
00:27:04.420
I know a lot of people who, for aesthetic reasons,
link |
00:27:08.120
they'd like to be stronger.
link |
00:27:09.200
They're hearing that having strong bones
link |
00:27:10.720
and strong muscles and tendons,
link |
00:27:11.820
it's great for longevity and for avoiding injury
link |
00:27:13.860
and so many other features of life.
link |
00:27:15.980
And yet they don't want to fill out progressively larger
link |
00:27:20.460
and larger sizes of clothing.
link |
00:27:23.060
And we can go harder to the mechanisms
link |
00:27:24.620
on that piece if you want,
link |
00:27:25.460
and we can save that and come back to it.
link |
00:27:26.920
Sure.
link |
00:27:27.880
What I'd love to, both,
link |
00:27:29.980
what I'd love to know,
link |
00:27:31.460
if we could define some of these modifiable variables
link |
00:27:34.660
in the context of strength.
link |
00:27:35.740
So let's say I were somebody who,
link |
00:27:38.960
I come to you and I say,
link |
00:27:41.040
and let's just say for sake of balance here,
link |
00:27:44.160
because she actually does do some weight training.
link |
00:27:45.740
I bring my sister in and I say,
link |
00:27:47.820
me and my sister both want to get stronger.
link |
00:27:51.660
What modifiable variables should,
link |
00:27:54.120
how should we modify the variables?
link |
00:27:55.980
Love it. All right, great.
link |
00:27:57.240
I'm going to do inception on you one more time.
link |
00:27:59.340
So one of my other laws,
link |
00:28:00.780
oh, this won't be fast, I promise,
link |
00:28:01.980
of strength and conditioning,
link |
00:28:03.700
is in general, the default is all joints
link |
00:28:07.240
through all range of motion.
link |
00:28:09.420
So this is important because it's going to answer
link |
00:28:10.780
your very first question on this strength category.
link |
00:28:13.740
So in general, the ankle should go
link |
00:28:16.420
through the full range of motion of the ankle.
link |
00:28:17.740
The knee should go through the full range of motion,
link |
00:28:19.320
the knee, the hip, the elbow, et cetera, et cetera, right?
link |
00:28:21.940
Across the workout, not in a single movement.
link |
00:28:24.420
Well, right.
link |
00:28:25.760
I would hope, unless there's an amazing exercise
link |
00:28:28.140
I haven't heard about.
link |
00:28:28.980
Well, there are some exercises
link |
00:28:30.080
that we're going to call more full body.
link |
00:28:32.380
Think about a full snatch.
link |
00:28:34.340
Like you're going to take a lot of your muscles,
link |
00:28:36.320
a lot of your joints through a lot of range of motions.
link |
00:28:39.240
Other ones, like an isolation,
link |
00:28:40.540
we call these single joint exercises.
link |
00:28:42.100
So imagine a bicep curl.
link |
00:28:44.060
You have one joint in that particular case,
link |
00:28:45.500
the elbow moving, the shoulder,
link |
00:28:47.260
and everything else is pretty much stable.
link |
00:28:49.420
And this is how we'll differentiate multi-joint
link |
00:28:51.380
from single joint movements.
link |
00:28:53.580
But yeah, so across, I would even say
link |
00:28:55.740
it doesn't even have to be the day,
link |
00:28:57.380
but maybe throughout the week.
link |
00:28:58.940
Try to get every joint through full range of motion.
link |
00:29:02.280
Now, a couple of quick caveats to that.
link |
00:29:04.800
I am not advocating using full range of motion
link |
00:29:08.660
and allowing really bad exercise technique.
link |
00:29:11.560
So when I say full range of motion, that's the default.
link |
00:29:13.540
That doesn't mean every single person
link |
00:29:14.980
can do that for every single exercise.
link |
00:29:16.540
It means that's where we should be striving to,
link |
00:29:19.320
and that's our starting point.
link |
00:29:20.420
You're going to see a lot less injury
link |
00:29:22.700
and a lot more productivity out of your training sessions.
link |
00:29:24.780
In fact, the science is fairly clear on this one.
link |
00:29:27.620
Strength development, as well as hypertrophy,
link |
00:29:29.300
is generally enhanced
link |
00:29:30.380
with a larger range of motion of training.
link |
00:29:32.900
And the mechanisms are like somewhat understood on that.
link |
00:29:38.340
So that being said,
link |
00:29:40.160
if you have to get into, say, a bad position
link |
00:29:42.900
with your, say, low back, the spine is a very good one.
link |
00:29:45.060
In general, the spine should stay very neutral,
link |
00:29:47.060
is what we call it.
link |
00:29:47.900
So no flexion, no extension, especially in the lumbar region.
link |
00:29:51.480
So if you're doing, say, a deadlift,
link |
00:29:54.160
and in order to take your knee
link |
00:29:55.300
through a full range of motion on a deadlift,
link |
00:29:56.820
you have to compromise your back position.
link |
00:29:59.160
That's no bueno.
link |
00:30:01.020
So caveats there aside, don't kill me.
link |
00:30:04.140
In good positions, always.
link |
00:30:05.220
And don't kill yourselves, more importantly.
link |
00:30:08.040
So why that matters is if we walk through strength,
link |
00:30:10.320
the very first thing I'm gonna go through
link |
00:30:11.660
is the exercise selection.
link |
00:30:13.020
So let's choose an exercise
link |
00:30:14.460
which ideally has a full range of motion or close to it
link |
00:30:17.980
that doesn't induce injury for you,
link |
00:30:19.640
that you can still maintain good neck and low back
link |
00:30:22.420
and position and everything else,
link |
00:30:24.500
you feel comfortable with, so you can feel strong,
link |
00:30:27.420
but you don't feel like, oh my gosh,
link |
00:30:28.700
if you've never snatched before,
link |
00:30:30.900
having you do a snatch for a maximum, even 75%,
link |
00:30:34.820
like it's a terrible idea.
link |
00:30:35.660
You're not gonna feel confident it's gonna be a train wreck.
link |
00:30:38.020
I would rather put you on a machine bench press.
link |
00:30:40.420
So you can go, I feel stable, I feel safe here,
link |
00:30:42.040
and I can just express my strength.
link |
00:30:44.980
So exercise choice in general, full range of motion,
link |
00:30:48.780
and you wanna kind of balance between the movement areas.
link |
00:30:51.740
So this is an upper body press.
link |
00:30:53.380
So this is pushing away from you, bench press,
link |
00:30:55.940
things like that.
link |
00:30:56.780
Upper body pull, pulling an implement towards you,
link |
00:30:59.700
bent row, pull up.
link |
00:31:02.100
The pressing should be horizontal,
link |
00:31:03.980
so perpendicular to your body, as well as vertical.
link |
00:31:06.720
So this is lifting a weight over top of your head,
link |
00:31:09.480
lifting away from you.
link |
00:31:11.520
The pull version is pulling horizontally to you
link |
00:31:13.600
and pulling vertically down, pull up, things like that.
link |
00:31:17.020
From the lower body, we typically call these hinges.
link |
00:31:20.540
It's sort of a funny muscle thing
link |
00:31:21.920
that no one's gonna laugh at,
link |
00:31:22.880
but like maybe me and you here,
link |
00:31:24.900
is we'll categorize muscles as, or movements, exercises,
link |
00:31:28.180
as pushes and pulls, right?
link |
00:31:30.100
So like a squat tends to be a push,
link |
00:31:32.100
because you're pushing away the ground.
link |
00:31:33.520
A deadlift is a pull,
link |
00:31:34.420
because you're pulling the implement up to you.
link |
00:31:36.660
But in reality, every single exercise is only ever a pull,
link |
00:31:39.940
because muscle doesn't push things away.
link |
00:31:41.540
Muscle can only contract and pull on itself.
link |
00:31:43.500
And so, again, super nerdy thing
link |
00:31:46.120
that like most people are like, yeah.
link |
00:31:47.380
And everyone's like, that's so dumb.
link |
00:31:48.680
No, but I think it's a really important point,
link |
00:31:50.400
because it also speaks to something
link |
00:31:52.400
I think we'll get into later,
link |
00:31:53.540
which is that, you know, posterior chain, anterior chain.
link |
00:31:56.100
Totally.
link |
00:31:57.220
And if that's mysterious to people,
link |
00:31:58.860
it'll become clear before long.
link |
00:32:00.800
Posterior chain, anterior chain makes a lot of sense to me
link |
00:32:04.460
because of the way it's grounded
link |
00:32:05.580
and the firing of motor neurons,
link |
00:32:06.940
which is ultimately what controls muscle.
link |
00:32:09.140
So it's also, I think-
link |
00:32:09.980
Feel your nerves all the time.
link |
00:32:10.940
Exactly.
link |
00:32:11.780
So it also depends on the lens
link |
00:32:12.780
through which one looks at life and exercise.
link |
00:32:15.240
Of course, my lens is primarily neuroscience.
link |
00:32:17.300
So, but I realized that the importance,
link |
00:32:20.260
I like this idea of pushing perpendicular to the body,
link |
00:32:23.840
overhead, pulling both toward the body and from overhead.
link |
00:32:29.240
That just makes really good intuitive sense,
link |
00:32:30.980
especially since a lot of people
link |
00:32:31.860
were just listening to this and not watching it.
link |
00:32:33.420
So in your minds, folks,
link |
00:32:34.700
you can think about pushing away like a punch or overhead,
link |
00:32:39.100
like lifting something overhead
link |
00:32:40.220
and then pulling toward your midline
link |
00:32:43.020
or toward your body rather,
link |
00:32:44.300
and then pulling yourself up like a pull-up in PE class
link |
00:32:47.220
for those of you that-
link |
00:32:48.640
So the lower body's the same thing, right?
link |
00:32:50.220
It's some sort of pushing away like a squat
link |
00:32:52.980
or a split squat or a lunge or something like that.
link |
00:32:55.860
And then some sort of, again, what we'll call pull or hinge.
link |
00:32:59.060
So a deadlift or a Romanian deadlift or a hamstring curl
link |
00:33:02.340
or something where you're contracting
link |
00:33:03.840
and pulling the thing in there.
link |
00:33:05.780
And you could split these
link |
00:33:06.620
into like a thousand different categories.
link |
00:33:08.100
If you're really in that field,
link |
00:33:09.820
you're gonna wanna add a bunch of other ones,
link |
00:33:12.080
but that's just like a rough conception.
link |
00:33:13.860
So if you were going to do a single workout,
link |
00:33:15.940
you could choose four exercises
link |
00:33:17.860
and you could choose one of each,
link |
00:33:18.900
one press, upper body press, one upper body pull,
link |
00:33:22.060
one lower body hinge, one lower body press.
link |
00:33:25.500
And then that would be like a decently well-rounded exercise.
link |
00:33:30.460
That's your exercise selection.
link |
00:33:31.940
And if you're taking those through a full range of motion,
link |
00:33:33.500
you're in a pretty good spot, as close as you can.
link |
00:33:35.740
The next one is intensity.
link |
00:33:37.000
So if you wanna develop strength,
link |
00:33:38.460
this comes back to one of my favorite scientists
link |
00:33:40.940
of all time, who happens to be a nerve guy, actually.
link |
00:33:43.380
And generally I like to shit on nerves
link |
00:33:44.820
as much as I possibly can, because I'm a muscle guy,
link |
00:33:47.320
but I have to give Henneman some credit here, right?
link |
00:33:49.500
And I know you know who that is.
link |
00:33:50.660
Henneman's size principle.
link |
00:33:51.620
Yeah, of course, right?
link |
00:33:53.260
So this is a series of papers.
link |
00:33:54.500
I think it was in nature.
link |
00:33:57.020
At least some of them, yeah.
link |
00:33:58.060
Yeah, in 1954, 56 or like something,
link |
00:34:01.380
you can fact check me, I'm sure you will.
link |
00:34:04.180
But he basically outlined this idea that,
link |
00:34:06.660
okay, there's a certain recruitment threshold needed
link |
00:34:09.780
for neurons to fire.
link |
00:34:10.780
And we have muscle fibers in what we call
link |
00:34:13.780
fast twitch muscle fibers and slow twitch muscle fibers.
link |
00:34:16.120
And in general, you're going to activate
link |
00:34:18.180
the slow twitch ones first, because they tend to be
link |
00:34:20.460
associated with low threshold motor neurons.
link |
00:34:22.740
It's not exactly that way, but it's close enough, right?
link |
00:34:25.600
Well, the only way that you activate
link |
00:34:27.200
some of these higher threshold neurons
link |
00:34:28.720
is to demand the muscle to produce more force.
link |
00:34:32.900
And it's fairly specific to force, right?
link |
00:34:34.800
It's not something you can do over an endurance thing,
link |
00:34:38.020
right, unless it gets really extreme and particularly happens.
link |
00:34:41.520
So in general, the only way to use these big chunks
link |
00:34:44.120
of your muscle, which are incredibly important
link |
00:34:46.700
for aging, by the way, one of the major problems we have
link |
00:34:48.840
with aging developing or development of aging related issues
link |
00:34:51.860
with muscle is the fact that we lose
link |
00:34:53.740
fast twitch fibers preferentially.
link |
00:34:55.560
And then we have major problems as we go down the line,
link |
00:34:58.200
because we've lost a big chunk of our strength and size.
link |
00:35:00.280
So you want to make sure these fibers stay alive and intact.
link |
00:35:04.040
Okay, so that being said, the only way to develop strength
link |
00:35:08.380
is then to challenge the muscle to produce more total force.
link |
00:35:12.520
If you are fairly untrained or new,
link |
00:35:16.200
I guess I should have stated this all
link |
00:35:17.320
at the beginning as well.
link |
00:35:18.160
One more inception, then I'll stop.
link |
00:35:20.540
When it comes to this level of detail
link |
00:35:22.080
of exercise prescription, a fairly untrained person
link |
00:35:25.640
is going to respond basically the same
link |
00:35:27.600
to every single thing you do.
link |
00:35:29.280
In fact, we've done this in the lab many times.
link |
00:35:30.880
We've done training studies doing things
link |
00:35:32.780
like 30 minutes of cycling and seen huge increases
link |
00:35:35.920
in muscle strength and size, which is not a prescription
link |
00:35:38.660
for most people to increase size,
link |
00:35:40.920
but people that are really untrained,
link |
00:35:42.980
if you did plyometrics or strength training
link |
00:35:45.280
or endurance running, they all just get better at everything.
link |
00:35:48.600
So that caveat kind of aside, if you want to be
link |
00:35:51.580
more intentional and more specific to the goal of strength,
link |
00:35:55.280
you need to produce more force, specificity matters.
link |
00:35:58.840
So we have size principle to help understand this,
link |
00:36:02.440
and we have our laws of specificity,
link |
00:36:04.240
which say said principle, specific adaptation
link |
00:36:07.460
to imposed demand.
link |
00:36:08.800
So the adaptation you get or the result of your training
link |
00:36:12.000
is going to be a reflection of the demand that you imposed.
link |
00:36:15.640
So if you want to get stronger,
link |
00:36:17.280
you need to impose a demand of strength, not repetitions.
link |
00:36:21.820
So this has to be, the load has to be very high.
link |
00:36:24.560
In general, you're probably looking at above 85%
link |
00:36:27.600
of your one rep max.
link |
00:36:29.960
If you're moderately trained, maybe 75% will work,
link |
00:36:33.260
lowly trained again, everything works.
link |
00:36:35.400
But in general, we want to be pressing a load
link |
00:36:38.080
that's very high.
link |
00:36:38.920
So because the intensity demand is so high,
link |
00:36:42.480
that is going to enforce you to do a low repetition range.
link |
00:36:46.080
You can't do 12 reps at 95%,
link |
00:36:49.040
then it wouldn't be 95% of your one rep max.
link |
00:36:50.900
So by definition, true strength training
link |
00:36:53.740
is really going to be in like five repetitions per set
link |
00:36:56.360
or less range.
link |
00:36:58.000
That's where most of it's going to occur for specificity.
link |
00:37:00.960
So we've covered choice, intensity and repetitions, right?
link |
00:37:06.240
The total amount of sets that you do
link |
00:37:08.400
is really kind of up to your personal fitness level, right?
link |
00:37:12.540
If you did as little as like three sets per exercise,
link |
00:37:15.400
that's probably enough.
link |
00:37:16.360
Work sets.
link |
00:37:17.280
Totally, yeah, totally work sets, right.
link |
00:37:19.000
So get fully warmed up and build up to that 85%.
link |
00:37:21.560
Don't just walk into the gym and throw 85% on and go,
link |
00:37:24.440
thank you, that's an important distinction.
link |
00:37:27.920
So work your way up, do some,
link |
00:37:30.320
like a very classic warmup thing would be
link |
00:37:32.600
like a set of 10 at 50%, a set of eight at 60%,
link |
00:37:37.200
a set of maybe eight again at 70%,
link |
00:37:39.360
and then maybe like a set of five at 75%.
link |
00:37:42.280
So two or three or four sets kind of building intensity
link |
00:37:45.000
and lowering the rep range.
link |
00:37:46.680
And then you would go after your two or three working sets.
link |
00:37:52.040
Also, in terms of rest intervals.
link |
00:37:54.680
Now, because we're trying to,
link |
00:37:56.200
the primary driver of strength is intensity.
link |
00:37:59.500
It's not the volume, right?
link |
00:38:01.000
It's the intensity.
link |
00:38:02.160
So in order to maintain that,
link |
00:38:03.100
we have to do a low repetition range.
link |
00:38:04.400
But in addition, we also have to have a high rest interval
link |
00:38:07.080
because if we start to,
link |
00:38:08.320
if we have any amount of fatigue can occur
link |
00:38:10.240
and we have to then either reduce the reps
link |
00:38:12.400
or reduce the intensity, we've lost the primary driver.
link |
00:38:15.560
We've lost that main signal.
link |
00:38:17.160
So the number we're gonna throw out typically
link |
00:38:18.640
is like two to four minutes.
link |
00:38:21.240
So imagine you did, you know, your set of bench press
link |
00:38:24.440
and you did five repetitions at 85%,
link |
00:38:27.200
you probably wanna rest two to four minutes
link |
00:38:29.240
before coming back to the bench.
link |
00:38:31.140
That doesn't mean you have to sit there on your phone.
link |
00:38:33.200
Like, in fact, please don't.
link |
00:38:35.600
Everyone will thank you for not doing that, I promise.
link |
00:38:38.880
You can engage other muscle groups.
link |
00:38:40.360
This is what we call supersetting.
link |
00:38:41.760
So you're doing your bench press
link |
00:38:43.000
and while that two minute clock is running for your chest
link |
00:38:46.560
to rest, you can go over and do your deadlifts.
link |
00:38:49.320
And so, you know, you can kind of move back and forth
link |
00:38:52.200
and this is how you can make strength training
link |
00:38:54.680
not seven hour workout.
link |
00:38:56.880
If you're a professional athlete,
link |
00:38:57.720
you're gonna take that time
link |
00:38:59.280
because you wanna maximize the outcome.
link |
00:39:02.480
We've done this actually in our lab too.
link |
00:39:03.560
Supersets will reduce the strength gains
link |
00:39:06.900
but by a tiny amount.
link |
00:39:08.240
And most of us don't care enough
link |
00:39:10.240
relative to it's going to triple
link |
00:39:11.760
the length of your training session.
link |
00:39:13.720
It's not worth it.
link |
00:39:14.640
So for the average person, I will tell them,
link |
00:39:16.560
yeah, superset.
link |
00:39:17.400
For someone who's trying to break a world record
link |
00:39:19.920
in weightlifting or powerlifting, I don't superset.
link |
00:39:23.080
Interesting.
link |
00:39:23.920
Yeah, I think I've found that I don't recover
link |
00:39:26.920
particularly well from strength and hypertrophy training.
link |
00:39:29.680
So-
link |
00:39:30.520
Like in the workout or the next day?
link |
00:39:32.200
From workout to workout.
link |
00:39:33.400
Unless I keep the total duration of those workouts,
link |
00:39:37.240
I like to say no more than 60 minutes of work, of real work.
link |
00:39:43.400
Maybe 75, past 75, I find that I just start to,
link |
00:39:46.920
I have to introduce additional rest days
link |
00:39:49.420
or I just get weaker over time.
link |
00:39:51.860
So I'd set a kind of a limit at 50 minutes
link |
00:39:55.280
and then I usually violate that limit
link |
00:39:57.360
and end up doing 60 minutes.
link |
00:39:59.260
So I'm excited to hear that one can superset exercises
link |
00:40:04.260
as long as they work different muscle groups, of course.
link |
00:40:07.660
So I wouldn't want to do like bench press
link |
00:40:09.300
and overhead press superset it
link |
00:40:10.580
because I think that goes without saying for most people,
link |
00:40:13.940
but just to point that out.
link |
00:40:15.280
But that I could do some push, pull, push, pull
link |
00:40:19.100
without compromising total intensity that much.
link |
00:40:22.800
And I certainly would be willing to give up a rep here
link |
00:40:25.620
or there or a few pounds here or there.
link |
00:40:29.100
And may I ask whether or not in doing that,
link |
00:40:32.420
one gets any even tiny bit or more of additional benefit
link |
00:40:38.580
in terms of cardiovascular work.
link |
00:40:40.520
Because I imagine after all, even a one rep max,
link |
00:40:43.560
which I've never done, as I mentioned,
link |
00:40:44.580
but let's say I get three reps on the overhead press
link |
00:40:47.380
and then I get four reps on a weighted pull up
link |
00:40:50.680
and I'm going back and forth.
link |
00:40:51.860
I'm no doubt going to be breathing harder
link |
00:40:53.900
than if I was sitting there texting away on my phone
link |
00:40:56.540
in between sets.
link |
00:40:57.580
Yep, of course.
link |
00:40:58.700
Yeah, and so in fact, in general,
link |
00:41:00.420
one of the things that I'll present in my class
link |
00:41:02.100
is a giant list of, in fact, on the top
link |
00:41:05.900
is all of these different exercise adaptations
link |
00:41:07.620
I started the conversation with.
link |
00:41:09.180
And on the vertical column are as many
link |
00:41:12.820
of the physiological potential adaptations one would get.
link |
00:41:15.780
So changes in endogenous pH, blood pressure,
link |
00:41:19.220
lymphatic changes, bone density, all these things, right?
link |
00:41:22.180
And you just have this giant list.
link |
00:41:23.340
And then you can run a matrix and you can start to look at,
link |
00:41:26.180
okay, if I do speed training,
link |
00:41:27.340
am I going to see changes in the nervous system?
link |
00:41:30.140
Well, like very much so, right?
link |
00:41:31.660
That's the primary actual reason those things work.
link |
00:41:34.460
Very little change in the muscle system.
link |
00:41:36.020
It's almost exclusively explained
link |
00:41:37.700
by the central or peripheral nervous system, right?
link |
00:41:41.260
On that same token,
link |
00:41:42.100
are you going to expect many cardiovascular adaptations
link |
00:41:43.900
from speed?
link |
00:41:44.740
And the answer is no,
link |
00:41:45.580
because although we didn't cover it,
link |
00:41:47.420
speed is very low intensity, very low rep range,
link |
00:41:50.220
very high rest.
link |
00:41:51.900
Well, as you go to like strength
link |
00:41:53.180
and then you go to hypertrophy,
link |
00:41:54.140
you start seeing more and more increases
link |
00:41:56.060
in cardiovascular adaptations
link |
00:41:57.300
because you're doing exactly that, right?
link |
00:41:59.300
You're starting to reduce stress
link |
00:42:01.340
and you're starting to increase volume.
link |
00:42:03.660
But you're going to lose things like
link |
00:42:06.100
bone mineral adaptations
link |
00:42:07.620
because the load starts to go down.
link |
00:42:09.460
So you can look at this matrix
link |
00:42:10.860
and kind of understand if I'm a person
link |
00:42:13.900
who wants to kind of maximize the adaptations
link |
00:42:16.580
I get across my entire physiology
link |
00:42:18.580
for the least amount of work,
link |
00:42:21.980
you can choose these different adaptations to go after
link |
00:42:25.180
that are going to kind of land on these things, right?
link |
00:42:26.980
And exactly as you mentioned,
link |
00:42:28.260
if you're going to take five minutes rest between each rep,
link |
00:42:31.100
so let's say the extreme,
link |
00:42:32.020
you're going to do three sets of one repetition
link |
00:42:34.020
for strength at 95%,
link |
00:42:36.020
you're going to take probably five,
link |
00:42:37.100
maybe seven minutes between each attempt.
link |
00:42:39.940
Like you better not expect many like changes
link |
00:42:41.860
in your resting blood pressure,
link |
00:42:43.020
that there's no cardiovascular strain there.
link |
00:42:45.180
You're going to put it together in a circuit
link |
00:42:46.940
where you're going to lose some potential strength adaptation
link |
00:42:49.180
but you're going to gain something there.
link |
00:42:51.660
So all these things are,
link |
00:42:52.820
it's not about good or bad or right or wrong,
link |
00:42:55.060
it's always about what advantage do you want
link |
00:42:57.540
and what disadvantage do you want?
link |
00:43:00.180
And I can cut like really into the chase here
link |
00:43:02.580
on one of these things,
link |
00:43:04.500
because we'll get to this eventually.
link |
00:43:06.340
If you want to know the ones that are going to generally
link |
00:43:08.020
give you the most physiological adaptations
link |
00:43:10.340
across the most categories,
link |
00:43:11.980
you're almost always looking
link |
00:43:12.900
for hypertrophy type of training
link |
00:43:14.620
and then this anaerobic conditioning piece
link |
00:43:17.500
that we're going to do,
link |
00:43:18.340
that's going to hit the most systems at once.
link |
00:43:20.060
That's great to know
link |
00:43:20.940
and we should definitely go a little bit deeper
link |
00:43:23.020
on those types of what the modifiable variables are
link |
00:43:26.940
for those categories,
link |
00:43:27.820
because I think that I'm guessing the vast majority
link |
00:43:29.820
of people want to be a bit stronger,
link |
00:43:31.620
maybe add a little bit of muscle or more,
link |
00:43:35.460
make sure their heart is healthy and et cetera.
link |
00:43:39.660
This is wonderful
link |
00:43:40.580
and I think it's clarifying certainly a lot for me.
link |
00:43:43.420
So for strength, I guess training frequency.
link |
00:43:47.260
So what should determine training frequency?
link |
00:43:49.380
And I had the great benefit of a long time ago
link |
00:43:54.060
when I was in high school actually,
link |
00:43:55.780
I paid for a session over the phone with Mike Mentzer.
link |
00:43:59.540
Oh, lovely.
link |
00:44:00.500
The Mike Mentzer.
link |
00:44:01.340
Sure.
link |
00:44:02.180
We got to be friends.
link |
00:44:03.000
High intensity training.
link |
00:44:04.180
At the time I was pretty young
link |
00:44:05.420
and my mother kept saying like,
link |
00:44:06.460
why is this like grown man calling the house?
link |
00:44:09.260
And we would talk all the time about training,
link |
00:44:11.020
but he tried to convince me
link |
00:44:12.980
to train once every five to seven days,
link |
00:44:16.100
very few sets, very high intensity.
link |
00:44:19.540
And I must say it worked incredibly well.
link |
00:44:23.220
Sure.
link |
00:44:24.060
And I think with my recovery quotient,
link |
00:44:26.940
which was not very good,
link |
00:44:28.300
I think has improved over time, but was not very good.
link |
00:44:30.100
It was remarkable.
link |
00:44:31.900
But of course this was a time when I was-
link |
00:44:34.380
Full of the most animalism you've ever had in your life.
link |
00:44:36.820
I was 14 on my own version of anabolics.
link |
00:44:40.540
I had a long arc of puberty.
link |
00:44:41.820
And you were untrained.
link |
00:44:43.200
And I was mostly untrained.
link |
00:44:44.260
I've been running cross country
link |
00:44:45.740
and skateboarding and playing soccer.
link |
00:44:47.700
And doing all the things
link |
00:44:48.600
that are like the antithesis of growing muscle.
link |
00:44:50.500
It was literally, and people will probably say impossible.
link |
00:44:52.580
It was something like 40 pounds of muscle
link |
00:44:54.420
inside of 12 months.
link |
00:44:55.500
It was crazy.
link |
00:44:56.340
I wouldn't believe that.
link |
00:44:58.120
And so then of course that stopped working over time.
link |
00:45:01.340
And then you start going down the odyssey
link |
00:45:04.260
of trying to find the thing that's going to work that well.
link |
00:45:06.180
And you eventually realized
link |
00:45:07.220
that it was because you were untrained, right?
link |
00:45:10.020
So training frequency is crucial.
link |
00:45:14.780
Let's say that people are doing these whole body workouts
link |
00:45:17.340
as you've described them.
link |
00:45:18.160
Not alternating upper body, lower body.
link |
00:45:20.020
Cause there's so many different splits
link |
00:45:21.160
so it probably doesn't make sense
link |
00:45:22.620
to go into splits right now.
link |
00:45:25.920
But how often can and should one train a muscle?
link |
00:45:30.400
And how do you know if a muscle is recovered locally?
link |
00:45:33.740
And how do you know if your nervous system
link |
00:45:35.340
is recovered systemically?
link |
00:45:36.580
Okay, this is a bunch of really interesting questions.
link |
00:45:38.660
I'm not sure exactly what route you want to go.
link |
00:45:40.240
So I'll start here.
link |
00:45:41.940
As I mentioned earlier,
link |
00:45:43.380
soreness is not a good barometer of exercise quality
link |
00:45:45.820
because some types of training
link |
00:45:47.340
are going to induce more soreness
link |
00:45:48.740
and some are going to induce less.
link |
00:45:51.000
That's important to this conversation
link |
00:45:52.380
because when you ask about how do you know
link |
00:45:54.540
if a muscle is ready to train again,
link |
00:45:56.660
one of the question is, what are you training for?
link |
00:45:59.100
If you're training for hypertrophy, right?
link |
00:46:01.500
Muscle size, muscle growth.
link |
00:46:03.440
We need to hedge towards recovery
link |
00:46:05.180
because what you're trying to do
link |
00:46:06.140
is cause a massive insult there.
link |
00:46:08.660
Allow then protein synthesis to occur,
link |
00:46:11.300
building of new tissue, which takes time,
link |
00:46:13.580
48 to 72 hours, like kind of at a minimum,
link |
00:46:17.180
that process needs to occur.
link |
00:46:18.480
If you're doing actually more strength,
link |
00:46:20.380
and this is a differentiation
link |
00:46:21.580
between hypertrophy and strength,
link |
00:46:23.300
then you didn't induce actually much damage.
link |
00:46:25.260
In fact, you're generally not going to get very sore
link |
00:46:27.100
from true strength training, very little,
link |
00:46:29.280
unless you get really heavy, you did a lot.
link |
00:46:32.560
The primary driver of hypertrophy
link |
00:46:34.860
is not the same primary driver of strength.
link |
00:46:37.440
We talked about that already.
link |
00:46:38.360
That's intensity driven.
link |
00:46:39.940
For hypertrophy, it's not intensity.
link |
00:46:43.020
So because we have different mechanisms,
link |
00:46:45.100
we have different outcomes,
link |
00:46:46.420
even though they're closely aligned,
link |
00:46:48.460
strength is not going to cause a lot of soreness.
link |
00:46:50.280
Therefore, intensity is the driver.
link |
00:46:52.400
Therefore, frequency can be as high as you want.
link |
00:46:55.740
So you can train every single day,
link |
00:46:57.660
the same exact muscle, if speed or power or strength
link |
00:47:01.320
are the primary training tools,
link |
00:47:03.340
because you need stimulus there, skill as well, right?
link |
00:47:06.380
Practice, you know that as much as anybody.
link |
00:47:10.060
Developing a new motor pattern
link |
00:47:11.500
requires a lot of repetitions, right?
link |
00:47:13.660
You don't need a tremendous amount of rest.
link |
00:47:15.460
That's not a damage thing, right?
link |
00:47:17.860
It's a repatterning issue.
link |
00:47:19.540
So strength training, in fact, if you look at,
link |
00:47:22.540
again, true strength professional athletes,
link |
00:47:24.860
they're going to train the same muscles basically every day.
link |
00:47:27.860
Wow.
link |
00:47:28.700
They're going to squat every day.
link |
00:47:29.540
And is that because the primary mode of adaptation
link |
00:47:32.540
is recruitment of these high threshold motor units?
link |
00:47:35.260
So it's mainly neural.
link |
00:47:37.020
No.
link |
00:47:38.160
So everyone's going to say that?
link |
00:47:39.000
And this is where I get all feisty?
link |
00:47:40.620
Well, I'm not saying that.
link |
00:47:41.700
That was actually, there was a question mark there.
link |
00:47:43.380
Okay, okay.
link |
00:47:44.220
If we were online putting comments,
link |
00:47:45.820
there'd be a question mark.
link |
00:47:46.980
We would have fought.
link |
00:47:47.820
Yeah.
link |
00:47:48.640
I think I blocked you.
link |
00:47:49.860
I was just kidding.
link |
00:47:50.700
I think you already blocked me.
link |
00:47:51.820
Probably twice.
link |
00:47:55.400
Okay.
link |
00:47:56.840
The early adaptations to exercise,
link |
00:47:58.780
especially strength training,
link |
00:48:00.620
are hedged towards the nervous system.
link |
00:48:02.840
No question about it.
link |
00:48:03.680
People always say central nervous system,
link |
00:48:04.860
but it's probably more peripheral, right?
link |
00:48:07.100
Whatever, semantics probably, but pedantic.
link |
00:48:10.140
It's nerve.
link |
00:48:10.980
If you train today, tomorrow morning,
link |
00:48:12.900
you're not going to wake up with a actually increase
link |
00:48:15.660
in contractile proteins in muscle.
link |
00:48:17.440
Your muscle might be a little bit bigger
link |
00:48:19.220
due to some acute swelling,
link |
00:48:21.020
but you could have a pretty acute that persists change
link |
00:48:25.900
in the nervous system, we'll call it,
link |
00:48:27.260
that allows you to be stronger within a couple of days.
link |
00:48:30.580
Sustained hypertrophy is probably more along the lines
link |
00:48:32.980
of four weeks, where we can see that, right?
link |
00:48:35.300
We can actually see changes like in the ultrasound.
link |
00:48:38.100
Now you're making changes immediately.
link |
00:48:39.500
That protein synthesis process is happening very fast,
link |
00:48:43.260
and it's going to last.
link |
00:48:44.160
It just takes us time to measure it
link |
00:48:46.420
in terms of a noticeable change in your whole muscle size.
link |
00:48:49.380
So that being said, the first four weeks,
link |
00:48:51.220
we typically say are primarily nervous system.
link |
00:48:54.900
After that, now we're starting to see most of the changes
link |
00:48:57.700
coming from the muscle side of the equation.
link |
00:49:00.000
So with strength development,
link |
00:49:01.900
it's a combination of three areas.
link |
00:49:03.540
In fact, all muscle contraction has these same three things.
link |
00:49:06.940
It starts off with some signal, right?
link |
00:49:09.260
From somewhere in the body,
link |
00:49:10.580
whether it's all the way up the top
link |
00:49:11.740
or at the level of the spine,
link |
00:49:13.060
depending on if this is a reaction
link |
00:49:14.560
or an actual conscious control.
link |
00:49:17.780
From there, some signal has to tell the muscle to contract.
link |
00:49:20.860
Okay, so signal is one.
link |
00:49:22.240
Two, it's muscular contraction.
link |
00:49:23.780
And there's a lot of variables inside the muscle tissue
link |
00:49:26.100
itself that determine its functionality.
link |
00:49:28.900
And so if we took an individual biopsy
link |
00:49:30.740
and took a muscle fiber from you and took one from me,
link |
00:49:32.580
and we took those muscles out and put them in a Petri dish,
link |
00:49:35.460
and I tied one end to a force transducer,
link |
00:49:37.780
the other end to a thing that pulls it,
link |
00:49:39.940
and we soaked it in a bath of calcium
link |
00:49:41.580
and a bunch of other stuff,
link |
00:49:42.960
even if they were the same size,
link |
00:49:44.560
your fibers might contract a lot faster than mine,
link |
00:49:47.600
even relative to size, or not, or slower,
link |
00:49:50.600
or there's various properties.
link |
00:49:52.160
So the intrinsic fibers themselves
link |
00:49:55.040
determine a lot of functionality.
link |
00:49:57.240
From there, muscle fibers don't cause movements.
link |
00:50:00.120
Muscle fibers simply contract.
link |
00:50:02.000
They're all surrounded with connective tissue,
link |
00:50:03.720
and that's all surrounded
link |
00:50:04.560
with a bunch of more connective tissue,
link |
00:50:06.160
and that all surrounds into a muscle.
link |
00:50:07.560
That muscle is then surrounded with more connective tissue.
link |
00:50:09.720
That all comes together into a giant tendon.
link |
00:50:12.640
That tendon attaches to the bone.
link |
00:50:14.120
It's pulling on those tendon
link |
00:50:15.520
that actually move the bone that cause human movement.
link |
00:50:17.840
So that's area three.
link |
00:50:18.680
Area one, the nervous system, area two,
link |
00:50:20.560
the muscle contraction, area three,
link |
00:50:22.000
some sort of connective tissue thing.
link |
00:50:24.840
Changes happen at all three of those levels,
link |
00:50:27.480
and we're not even now talking,
link |
00:50:28.760
we even entered the discussion of biomechanics,
link |
00:50:30.720
and you changed, say, the panation angle of the muscle,
link |
00:50:33.600
which is the angle at which the muscle fibers lay
link |
00:50:35.840
relative to the bone, right?
link |
00:50:37.760
So this is basic mechanics.
link |
00:50:38.760
Is it pulling perpendicular to the bone?
link |
00:50:40.640
Is it pulling horizontal to the bone,
link |
00:50:42.080
or some sort of angle?
link |
00:50:43.560
All of these things determine human performance.
link |
00:50:46.920
So when you're talking about, again,
link |
00:50:47.960
that strength development,
link |
00:50:49.680
you can see tremendous improvements
link |
00:50:51.840
in total force production
link |
00:50:53.240
by manipulating all of those areas,
link |
00:50:56.000
and you have not touched changes in muscle size.
link |
00:51:00.640
If you change muscle size in a true sustained fashion,
link |
00:51:03.640
whether this is sarcoplasmic or contractile proteins,
link |
00:51:07.400
you have given yourself more opportunity
link |
00:51:09.360
to produce more force.
link |
00:51:10.200
It doesn't guarantee you produce more force.
link |
00:51:13.040
Bodybuilders are not stronger than power lifters,
link |
00:51:15.520
even though they have more muscle,
link |
00:51:17.160
but bodybuilders are probably stronger than most people.
link |
00:51:20.240
So there is a relationship between muscle size and strength.
link |
00:51:23.720
It's just not a one-to-one guaranteed ratio,
link |
00:51:26.320
and that's generally because,
link |
00:51:29.160
although the muscle has been aided,
link |
00:51:31.120
they may have not changed the biomechanical considerations,
link |
00:51:33.520
they may have not changed the connective tissue,
link |
00:51:35.800
nor the nervous system stuff.
link |
00:51:37.920
And so that's why we see this giant relationship,
link |
00:51:40.320
that R-value is pretty high between strength and hypertrophy,
link |
00:51:43.240
but if you really wanna get to the ends of it, it's not,
link |
00:51:46.240
and that matters to your actual question 10 minutes ago,
link |
00:51:49.560
because again, you can train strength daily
link |
00:51:52.720
on the same muscle,
link |
00:51:54.080
but if you want to allow for that process
link |
00:51:56.040
of contractile proteins to add and grow,
link |
00:51:59.680
then you're gonna have to allow some recovery,
link |
00:52:01.320
because if you go back into that muscle too soon,
link |
00:52:03.880
you're gonna blunt the response, you're gonna stop it,
link |
00:52:06.320
you're gonna cut it off.
link |
00:52:07.440
You have all kinds of problems going on in the cell
link |
00:52:09.960
that are gonna just attenuate that growth response.
link |
00:52:13.400
So I gave you the answer for strength training.
link |
00:52:16.480
The answer for hypertrophy is probably less than three
link |
00:52:20.480
out of 10 on level of soreness, so you can go again.
link |
00:52:23.120
In general, you're probably looking at 72 hours
link |
00:52:25.640
is the optimal window.
link |
00:52:27.360
So if you trained your shoulders on Monday,
link |
00:52:30.840
you probably would don't wanna train them again on Tuesday.
link |
00:52:33.400
If hypertrophy is the goal, maybe Wednesday,
link |
00:52:36.440
maybe Thursday is best.
link |
00:52:38.040
So something like an every two to three day window
link |
00:52:40.520
is probably, and we know a little bit more now
link |
00:52:43.520
about why that is.
link |
00:52:45.160
The gene cascade, the signaling response happens,
link |
00:52:47.800
well, the signaling happens instantaneously, right,
link |
00:52:50.080
within seconds.
link |
00:52:51.320
The gene cascade is probably in the,
link |
00:52:53.480
peaked in the four hour window,
link |
00:52:55.000
like depending on which gene you wanna look at,
link |
00:52:58.280
but it's just kind of a snapshot.
link |
00:53:00.080
But the protein synthesis process is 24 to 48 hours
link |
00:53:03.320
thing, and so it tends to kind of look like,
link |
00:53:06.200
let that thing finish and let that signal go back
link |
00:53:08.360
to baseline, and then hit it again, and then hit it again.
link |
00:53:12.440
And now as long as you're providing the nutrients,
link |
00:53:14.200
the recovery should happen, and you should be able
link |
00:53:16.640
to sustain the same work output in the training session
link |
00:53:19.480
so the stimulus stays high and the recovery's there,
link |
00:53:22.080
and you can now continue to grow muscle.
link |
00:53:26.280
You mentioned 48 to 72 hours for hypertrophy.
link |
00:53:29.320
What if, for whatever reasons,
link |
00:53:35.400
the training split, lifestyle factors, et cetera,
link |
00:53:39.160
somebody say, let's use your example,
link |
00:53:40.840
trains shoulders on Monday.
link |
00:53:44.000
Ideally, they would train them again on Thursday
link |
00:53:46.520
in their particular instance, somewhere Wednesday
link |
00:53:48.520
or Thursday, but they don't.
link |
00:53:50.960
They wait until Saturday or Sunday for whatever reason.
link |
00:53:55.240
Maybe it's more compatible with their work,
link |
00:53:57.240
work another exercise schedule, whatever the reason.
link |
00:54:00.920
Are they actually losing hypertrophy that they gained
link |
00:54:03.120
or they've missed a window to induce further hypertrophy?
link |
00:54:06.440
It's probably better to think about it the latter.
link |
00:54:09.000
It's not that you've lost, it's just you've just kind
link |
00:54:11.080
of lost an opportunity to make more progress.
link |
00:54:16.520
I will save you a little bit, and kind of going back
link |
00:54:18.760
to your HIIT program, this is the original high-intensity
link |
00:54:21.720
training, the menstrual thing, right, which is not.
link |
00:54:24.760
The HIIT with one eye, not the high-intensity interval
link |
00:54:27.040
training, but high-intensity training,
link |
00:54:28.480
like one set to absolute failure, maybe two
link |
00:54:32.360
for each muscle group.
link |
00:54:34.160
20-minute workouts.
link |
00:54:35.160
Dividing your body into a three-way split,
link |
00:54:37.480
and then literally training like six times a month,
link |
00:54:40.400
which most people think that is absolutely crazy.
link |
00:54:43.280
There's no way that's going to work.
link |
00:54:44.520
And I can tell you, if you are untrained,
link |
00:54:46.400
you grow like a weed, if you train hard enough.
link |
00:54:49.520
Even if you're trained, look at the people Mike trained.
link |
00:54:52.000
He put a lot of bodybuilders on really high levels.
link |
00:54:54.880
Now, they had the same similar help you had
link |
00:54:58.160
at that timeframe.
link |
00:54:59.000
Wait, to be very clear, I was not
link |
00:55:00.440
taking exogenous antibiotics.
link |
00:55:01.800
In fact, I will-
link |
00:55:02.640
No, but your endogenous was just as good.
link |
00:55:03.880
I probably was.
link |
00:55:04.720
I wasn't measuring my levels there, but I probably would.
link |
00:55:06.640
I grew easy.
link |
00:55:07.560
And in general, I tend to grow pretty easily
link |
00:55:10.840
from weight training, but the, but,
link |
00:55:13.640
and I should say that to Mike's credit,
link |
00:55:15.240
and I think this is an important message,
link |
00:55:16.920
that he was the one who really said,
link |
00:55:20.320
look, unless you're going to make a professional career
link |
00:55:23.480
out of it, do not run the health hazards
link |
00:55:25.920
of exogenous hormones.
link |
00:55:27.720
You know, it's certainly not at your age.
link |
00:55:29.240
So he deterred me from that, which was great,
link |
00:55:31.040
because it never entered my mind.
link |
00:55:32.400
It just was one of those things where Mike Mentzer
link |
00:55:34.480
said, don't do it.
link |
00:55:35.480
And he had clearly done it, right?
link |
00:55:37.120
And so he's speaking from an informed place.
link |
00:55:39.040
It never entered my mind, but also I was,
link |
00:55:41.080
what was really wild is I was continuing
link |
00:55:44.200
to run cross country.
link |
00:55:45.920
And so there was a, there was a trade off there
link |
00:55:49.040
at some point.
link |
00:55:49.880
But when you're young, you can get,
link |
00:55:52.040
many people can get away with what at this age
link |
00:55:55.200
would surely place me into a state of over-training,
link |
00:55:57.480
even at low volume.
link |
00:55:58.400
We'll see.
link |
00:55:59.240
Yeah, well, I mean like the whole field
link |
00:56:00.320
on interference effects has changed quite a bit recently,
link |
00:56:03.880
which we can come back to if you want.
link |
00:56:05.560
But just to finish out the idea here
link |
00:56:08.080
with that last question,
link |
00:56:11.680
if you want to take five days or six days
link |
00:56:13.240
in between each muscle group, you can do that.
link |
00:56:15.560
In fact, if you look at the research,
link |
00:56:16.600
it's going to show that frequency is not that important.
link |
00:56:19.160
It will, it's not that it's unimportant,
link |
00:56:21.120
but it's, it can handle changes
link |
00:56:24.880
as long as you get to the same total volume.
link |
00:56:27.720
So you can do that.
link |
00:56:29.480
You just have to do a lot more work in that one workout.
link |
00:56:33.160
If you care about the six week, eight week thing,
link |
00:56:35.640
if you're like, I'm in this for the next 60 years,
link |
00:56:39.160
like it's probably okay, right?
link |
00:56:41.800
But it can be there that the challenge with splitting up
link |
00:56:44.520
your training sessions for hypertrophy
link |
00:56:46.480
into smaller numbers, like once or twice a week,
link |
00:56:50.440
it's just difficult to get that number.
link |
00:56:52.640
It's typical to get that volume done.
link |
00:56:55.240
Volume wise, the more recent meta-analyses are going to say
link |
00:56:59.640
that you're probably looking at around 10 working sets
link |
00:57:03.360
per muscle group per week.
link |
00:57:05.120
Seems to be kind of the minimum threshold
link |
00:57:06.840
that you're going to want to hit.
link |
00:57:07.960
So if you did three sets of 10 at your shoulders on Monday,
link |
00:57:11.320
three sets of 10 shoulders Wednesday and three on Friday,
link |
00:57:15.160
that's nine working sets.
link |
00:57:16.880
If you wanted to do three different shoulder work,
link |
00:57:20.200
exercises on Monday and hit your nine sets,
link |
00:57:23.360
it's not really actually going to be that much different.
link |
00:57:25.520
The problem is 10 is kind of a minimum.
link |
00:57:28.720
You probably want to look for more like 15 to 20.
link |
00:57:31.360
And in fact, well-trained folks, 20, 25.
link |
00:57:34.080
That becomes very challenging in one workout.
link |
00:57:37.000
In fact, defunct though,
link |
00:57:38.160
you're not going to be able to do it, right?
link |
00:57:39.320
And so that is where it's not the frequency
link |
00:57:42.320
that looks like it kills you.
link |
00:57:43.160
It's just the fact you have got to get,
link |
00:57:44.640
because the total driver of strength is intensity,
link |
00:57:46.880
but the total driver of hypertrophy is volume.
link |
00:57:49.640
Assume you're taking it to fatigue, right?
link |
00:57:51.400
Or muscular failure.
link |
00:57:52.480
So it's just tough to get enough done.
link |
00:57:54.440
If you can, and if you want to set your schedule up
link |
00:57:56.680
that way, like you probably remember,
link |
00:57:58.600
if you do those types of training sessions
link |
00:58:00.160
where you're just going to completely exhaust a muscle,
link |
00:58:04.440
it's going to be sore for a while.
link |
00:58:06.520
You're probably not going to come back.
link |
00:58:08.440
And that's sort of the logic behind that was
link |
00:58:10.280
let's take this thing to tremendous failure
link |
00:58:13.480
and give it six days to recover.
link |
00:58:16.760
It can work, it's just not the best,
link |
00:58:18.440
I think is one way to think about it.
link |
00:58:19.560
For most people.
link |
00:58:20.400
It's also hard to do those workouts
link |
00:58:21.520
without a training partner,
link |
00:58:22.640
if you really want to do them correctly.
link |
00:58:24.080
And stimulants and headphones
link |
00:58:25.480
and all kinds of other things, right?
link |
00:58:27.160
Well, anyway, yeah, stimulants are not,
link |
00:58:29.200
I certainly don't recommend those.
link |
00:58:31.760
It may be a cup of coffee or two, if that's your thing.
link |
00:58:35.720
And maybe some of the safer supplements,
link |
00:58:37.840
but certainly not the sorts of stimulants
link |
00:58:40.000
that the guys in the seventies and eighties
link |
00:58:41.480
were famous for taking.
link |
00:58:42.640
Or still use.
link |
00:58:44.560
You talked about repetition ranges
link |
00:58:46.320
broadly for strength training, so five or less.
link |
00:58:49.320
You said frequency could be as often as every day.
link |
00:58:52.120
Rest, two to four minutes.
link |
00:58:53.520
Maybe even longer if you're going
link |
00:58:55.160
for one repetition maximum.
link |
00:58:57.800
For hypertrophy, what are the repetition ranges
link |
00:59:00.960
that are effective?
link |
00:59:01.880
And what are the ones that are most effective
link |
00:59:04.160
if one is trying to maximize some of the other variables?
link |
00:59:07.640
Like people don't want to spend more than an hour
link |
00:59:10.360
to 75 minutes in the gym.
link |
00:59:11.960
Because I think that while the rep ranges
link |
00:59:14.920
might be quite broad, as you alluded to earlier,
link |
00:59:17.320
there's the practical, there are the practical constraints.
link |
00:59:20.680
So what repetition ranges or percent
link |
00:59:23.200
of one repetition maximum should people consider
link |
00:59:26.840
when thinking about hypertrophy?
link |
00:59:28.000
Right.
link |
00:59:28.840
The quick answer there is anywhere between
link |
00:59:30.320
like five to 30 reps per set.
link |
00:59:32.880
That's going to show across the literature
link |
00:59:35.720
pretty much equal hypertrophy gains.
link |
00:59:38.280
And we could have a really interesting discussion
link |
00:59:39.480
about why that is, but I'm just remembering one thing
link |
00:59:42.840
from a second ago.
link |
00:59:44.680
I want to give a better answer for the frequency.
link |
00:59:46.760
You can do every single week for strength
link |
00:59:48.640
or every single day for strength.
link |
00:59:50.480
If you want though, like what's probably minimally viable,
link |
00:59:52.400
two, twice per week per muscle.
link |
00:59:54.920
So hamstrings, strength twice per week.
link |
00:59:57.280
That's a good number to get most people really strong.
link |
01:00:00.320
You can do every single day.
link |
01:00:02.080
You don't need to though.
link |
01:00:02.920
So I want to make sure that, like I wasn't saying
link |
01:00:04.480
you have to train a muscle 85% every single day
link |
01:00:07.920
to get it strong.
link |
01:00:08.760
Two is a good number.
link |
01:00:09.600
Three is great, but probably even two is really effective.
link |
01:00:12.600
Got it.
link |
01:00:13.440
And this explains the high frequency
link |
01:00:15.040
of training for strength athletes.
link |
01:00:17.160
That's always mystified me.
link |
01:00:19.000
And the very long workouts make sense because very long-
link |
01:00:21.120
They're going to even train twice a day.
link |
01:00:22.640
Like even though it's a squat,
link |
01:00:23.680
in the morning squat in the afternoon, every day.
link |
01:00:25.200
With their eating and their sleeping,
link |
01:00:26.280
they probably don't have time for anything else.
link |
01:00:27.800
That's why they're pros.
link |
01:00:28.800
So that's their job, right?
link |
01:00:30.160
That's what they do.
link |
01:00:31.000
So yeah, hypertrophy.
link |
01:00:33.280
Strength training programming is somewhat complicated, right?
link |
01:00:38.840
Because of, that's not the danger,
link |
01:00:41.440
but you're going to have to pay one way or the other, right?
link |
01:00:44.760
The risk is a little bit higher because the load's higher
link |
01:00:46.880
and you have to be a little bit more technically proficient.
link |
01:00:49.680
When it comes to hypertrophy training,
link |
01:00:51.000
the way I like to explain it is it's kind of idiot proof.
link |
01:00:53.760
The programming is idiot proof.
link |
01:00:55.040
The work is hard though.
link |
01:00:56.780
So here's your range.
link |
01:00:58.600
Anywhere between five reps and 30.
link |
01:01:02.280
Can you hit somewhere in there?
link |
01:01:03.200
Perfect.
link |
01:01:04.040
It's all equally effective.
link |
01:01:04.860
You can't screw that up.
link |
01:01:06.360
The only caveat for hypertrophy
link |
01:01:08.040
is you have to take it to muscular failure.
link |
01:01:10.800
And you need enough rest for the adaptation
link |
01:01:12.640
and protein synthesis to occur?
link |
01:01:14.080
Yep.
link |
01:01:14.920
All right, and if you recover faster,
link |
01:01:15.960
you can maybe do it more frequently.
link |
01:01:17.240
And if you don't, maybe less frequently.
link |
01:01:19.460
By that logic, should people perhaps experiment
link |
01:01:22.240
and figure out what repetition range
link |
01:01:24.440
allows them to recover in concert
link |
01:01:27.760
with the training frequency that they can do consistently?
link |
01:01:30.840
My recommendation is I think you should actually
link |
01:01:33.040
set your, use the repetition range
link |
01:01:37.460
as a way to have some variation.
link |
01:01:40.200
Because most people don't want to go in the gym
link |
01:01:41.560
and do three sets of 10.
link |
01:01:42.400
They're going to get very bored very quickly.
link |
01:01:43.800
And so I think you should actually intentionally change
link |
01:01:46.240
the rep schemes for simple sake of having more fun.
link |
01:01:48.940
It is a very different challenge.
link |
01:01:50.080
The mechanisms that are inducing hypertrophy are different,
link |
01:01:53.280
but there's only a maximum amount of growth
link |
01:01:54.880
that one can get, right?
link |
01:01:55.760
And so you have, as best we think it now,
link |
01:01:58.960
and some people actually will espouse
link |
01:02:00.880
that we know really clearly about the mechanisms
link |
01:02:03.420
of muscle hypertrophy, we don't.
link |
01:02:05.160
It's still very much a guessing game.
link |
01:02:06.920
But the three most likely drivers are one,
link |
01:02:10.360
metabolic stress, two, mechanical tension,
link |
01:02:13.480
and then three, muscular damage.
link |
01:02:15.960
You don't have to have all three.
link |
01:02:17.640
One is sufficient.
link |
01:02:18.580
You can have a little bit of one or two,
link |
01:02:20.800
and you can kind of, so you get it to play here.
link |
01:02:23.060
We've already talked about the muscular damage.
link |
01:02:24.560
Again, it's very clear, more damage is not better.
link |
01:02:28.200
But it is somewhat a decent proxy, right?
link |
01:02:31.680
Like again, a little bit of soreness is good.
link |
01:02:33.200
Just don't get so sore,
link |
01:02:34.160
it's compromising your total volume, all right?
link |
01:02:37.120
Mechanical tension is kind of like strength.
link |
01:02:38.640
And this is why if you do even set to five or eight,
link |
01:02:41.820
and you're kind of close to that strength range,
link |
01:02:43.200
you will gain a little bit of muscle.
link |
01:02:45.080
Not optimal muscle gain, but you're gonna gain some
link |
01:02:47.080
because everything in these,
link |
01:02:48.680
like physiology didn't cut off at four reps,
link |
01:02:50.520
and then five reps is a different thing, right?
link |
01:02:52.080
It's always a blend.
link |
01:02:53.000
So think of it as like a fading curve.
link |
01:02:55.720
As you get closer to the end, it fades less effective.
link |
01:02:59.040
As you get closer to the middle, it's more effective.
link |
01:03:02.200
Anywhere between eight reps per set to 30,
link |
01:03:04.720
it's equally effective.
link |
01:03:05.680
Past 30, it's gonna blend out.
link |
01:03:07.680
Past eight to five to four to three,
link |
01:03:09.820
it's gonna blend lesser there.
link |
01:03:13.200
So metabolic stress is one.
link |
01:03:15.000
The damage is the other, or sorry,
link |
01:03:16.480
mechanical tension is the one that's heavy.
link |
01:03:19.080
Muscle damage is the other one.
link |
01:03:20.240
The third one is metabolic stress.
link |
01:03:22.120
And this is, I get a bit of an area of scientific contention
link |
01:03:27.140
but something's there.
link |
01:03:28.680
I know something's there.
link |
01:03:29.840
We're just kind of fumbling to figure out what exactly it is
link |
01:03:32.440
and this is, metabolic stress is the burn, right?
link |
01:03:35.220
It's there.
link |
01:03:36.060
It's why blood flow restriction training probably works.
link |
01:03:40.180
That's done very light.
link |
01:03:41.380
So there's no mechanical tension.
link |
01:03:42.460
There's very little damage,
link |
01:03:43.820
but somehow it induces a good amount of hypertrophy.
link |
01:03:46.180
Very painful.
link |
01:03:47.020
Oh boy.
link |
01:03:48.100
I tried this, I have a friend, former special operator
link |
01:03:51.560
who was on the East coast and took me
link |
01:03:54.300
through a blood flow restriction training protocol
link |
01:03:57.940
in a park.
link |
01:03:58.780
And I don't think I actually cried, but-
link |
01:04:02.860
You probably did.
link |
01:04:03.700
I might've cried out once or twice.
link |
01:04:06.180
It was unbelievable, especially the lower body movements.
link |
01:04:10.220
Now it was a humid day.
link |
01:04:11.680
I'll claim a little bit of jet lag, but it was brutal.
link |
01:04:14.580
It was really brutal.
link |
01:04:15.760
And I also-
link |
01:04:16.600
Do it on the best day of your life and it's still brutal.
link |
01:04:17.880
Okay, well, that makes me feel a little bit better.
link |
01:04:20.140
It was intense.
link |
01:04:21.100
And people should know that it is important
link |
01:04:24.620
to use the proper cuffs for these things.
link |
01:04:26.580
I don't have any relationship to any of the companies
link |
01:04:28.980
that sell these cuffs, but the reason is
link |
01:04:30.780
that you actually need to block particular avenues
link |
01:04:32.780
of blood flow.
link |
01:04:33.620
You can't simply cinch off a muscle.
link |
01:04:35.020
You can't tourniquet a muscle and train.
link |
01:04:37.100
You can actually kill yourself that way.
link |
01:04:38.780
Yeah, you can get a blood clot.
link |
01:04:39.620
Yeah.
link |
01:04:40.460
And so if you're interested
link |
01:04:42.460
in blood flow restriction training,
link |
01:04:43.740
I imagine you have some content about this
link |
01:04:45.340
or will at some point, but also there are resources online
link |
01:04:48.220
that people can look up.
link |
01:04:49.060
Yeah, yeah.
link |
01:04:50.620
A question about hypertrophy training
link |
01:04:52.700
that I think many people are wondering about.
link |
01:04:56.940
Train to failure or don't train to failure?
link |
01:04:58.860
Assuming good form.
link |
01:05:00.100
Yeah, okay, assuming good form, great.
link |
01:05:02.180
The answer is both.
link |
01:05:03.740
So you wanna train to failure,
link |
01:05:05.700
but you don't need to go to extreme failure.
link |
01:05:09.060
So you don't need to necessarily go to that,
link |
01:05:10.860
like a partner has to lift the barbell off my chest,
link |
01:05:14.900
but you have to get close.
link |
01:05:16.820
You have to drive either heavy, stress, damage, right,
link |
01:05:21.500
or pump.
link |
01:05:22.860
And so a really easy practical way to think about this,
link |
01:05:26.100
I heard Mike Isratil who runs a company
link |
01:05:28.020
called Renaissance Periodization years ago
link |
01:05:29.620
outlined this at a NSCA talk, and it was beautiful.
link |
01:05:32.900
And I thought this is the most eloquent way
link |
01:05:34.300
to explain the context about training hypertrophy.
link |
01:05:37.100
So only to look for three things in your workout.
link |
01:05:40.140
And let's say that you have a particular muscle to grow.
link |
01:05:43.540
Let's say you want your glutes to get larger.
link |
01:05:45.420
Okay, when you're doing your glute exercises,
link |
01:05:47.660
number one, are you feeling the glute contract?
link |
01:05:50.860
Okay, it doesn't have to be there,
link |
01:05:52.020
but that's a good sign if it is.
link |
01:05:54.540
Okay, let's say I didn't really feel my glute contract.
link |
01:05:56.700
I felt it more in my quads or my back.
link |
01:05:58.940
Okay.
link |
01:06:00.260
Did you feel a big pump afterwards?
link |
01:06:03.400
No, I didn't really feel a pump there either, or during.
link |
01:06:05.860
Okay, great.
link |
01:06:06.700
Number three, next day,
link |
01:06:08.100
did you feel a little bit of soreness there at all?
link |
01:06:09.880
No, I didn't.
link |
01:06:10.860
Well, that's a very good indication.
link |
01:06:11.980
You didn't feel it during the workout.
link |
01:06:13.100
You felt no sort of pump and it didn't get sore.
link |
01:06:15.740
Don't expect much growth.
link |
01:06:17.740
Didn't happen.
link |
01:06:18.580
You distributed the work across a bunch of muscle groups.
link |
01:06:20.500
Most likely other muscle groups were too involved, right?
link |
01:06:23.060
Especially if you're like,
link |
01:06:23.900
no, but man, my back got really,
link |
01:06:26.400
well, that's a really good indication
link |
01:06:27.740
of telling you what the hell was moving.
link |
01:06:29.980
And so in terms of targets,
link |
01:06:31.500
if you were to put, again, a one to 10 scale,
link |
01:06:35.060
how much should I feel it burning during?
link |
01:06:37.660
Anything less than a three,
link |
01:06:40.200
okay, it's probably not doing much, right?
link |
01:06:42.040
But it doesn't, like seven is not,
link |
01:06:43.980
a 10 is not better than seven.
link |
01:06:45.620
You need to feel it, but it doesn't have to be like,
link |
01:06:47.340
oh my gosh, I'm dying here.
link |
01:06:49.540
Soreness, same barometer, right?
link |
01:06:51.260
So if you can get like three, three and three,
link |
01:06:54.300
you're probably in a pretty good spot.
link |
01:06:55.620
Five, five and five is maybe better,
link |
01:06:58.120
but you don't need to go much past that.
link |
01:07:00.100
So I want you to feel the muscle group either working
link |
01:07:02.780
or if you're like, oh, I didn't feel it much.
link |
01:07:04.140
I didn't really get a pump,
link |
01:07:04.980
but the next day it got really sore.
link |
01:07:06.300
Well, then you're still, you know, you're on a good path.
link |
01:07:08.740
Again, really sore as in like,
link |
01:07:10.580
oh, a little tender, but next day it's okay.
link |
01:07:13.540
Day after that, I could train, no problem.
link |
01:07:15.580
That's really what you want to go after.
link |
01:07:17.320
And in terms of understanding,
link |
01:07:19.720
is this likely to produce some growth or not?
link |
01:07:22.980
Excellent, excellent, very clear parameters
link |
01:07:25.900
and recommendations I know are benefiting me
link |
01:07:28.060
and will benefit a lot of people.
link |
01:07:30.300
If you'd be willing to throw out a few sort of sets
link |
01:07:33.320
and rep parameters that could act as broad guidelines
link |
01:07:36.940
for people who want to explore further,
link |
01:07:41.220
I realized that with all these modifiable variables
link |
01:07:44.100
that there's no one size fits all, four strength.
link |
01:07:46.960
I love this five to 30 for hypertrophy.
link |
01:07:48.880
That's the prebital thing.
link |
01:07:49.720
I don't think I've ever done a 30 rep set of anything,
link |
01:07:51.940
but now that you've thrown that out there,
link |
01:07:53.620
I see it as a bit of a challenge.
link |
01:07:54.460
You want to know what's awesome about 30?
link |
01:07:56.540
You're going to get an insane pump.
link |
01:07:58.380
You're going to burn like crazy,
link |
01:07:59.620
but you won't get super sore
link |
01:08:01.660
because the mechanical tension is so low.
link |
01:08:03.660
It's so light.
link |
01:08:04.980
So you can get away with those things and you,
link |
01:08:07.500
it's hard because your mind is going to wander.
link |
01:08:09.640
You're going to get it like rep 20
link |
01:08:10.620
and you're going to be like, I'm done.
link |
01:08:11.460
And you're like, no, there's a lot left here to get to 30.
link |
01:08:14.340
Where like a set of 10 is much easier.
link |
01:08:16.500
Like you're just like, okay, two more, two more.
link |
01:08:18.240
Set of 30 is like, I got 16 more.
link |
01:08:20.660
It's awful, but you're not going to get this.
link |
01:08:21.480
It's terrible, right?
link |
01:08:23.260
And people tend to just kind of like check out.
link |
01:08:25.060
So 30 is possible, but a little bit extreme, extreme.
link |
01:08:28.220
But I would recommend all of them.
link |
01:08:29.860
Like it's a really fun play.
link |
01:08:31.220
You can do different in the same workout too, by the way.
link |
01:08:33.900
Like you could do one set of 10 pushups
link |
01:08:37.780
and then take a little break and then do a set of 25.
link |
01:08:39.820
You can mix and match these things.
link |
01:08:41.680
There's no magic recipe that has to happen for all those
link |
01:08:44.820
or do it different.
link |
01:08:45.660
So Mondays are my sets of 10 days.
link |
01:08:47.380
Wednesdays are my set of 20 days
link |
01:08:48.940
and Fridays are my set of 30 days.
link |
01:08:51.060
And you can have all kinds of fun there
link |
01:08:52.260
and it's hard to screw up.
link |
01:08:54.200
Great, I love that phrase is always reassuring.
link |
01:08:58.300
So for strength, is there a sets and reps protocol
link |
01:09:01.900
that is pretty surefire?
link |
01:09:04.540
So a way to just think about a really fast answer
link |
01:09:08.040
for power, well, speed, power and strength
link |
01:09:11.860
is what I just call the three to five concept, right?
link |
01:09:15.020
So pick three to five exercises.
link |
01:09:17.060
If you're feeling better that day, choose on the higher end.
link |
01:09:20.200
If you're feeling less that day
link |
01:09:21.540
or you have a shorter timeframe to train, go less.
link |
01:09:24.260
So this would be three sets or three exercises rather
link |
01:09:27.160
or five exercises the most.
link |
01:09:28.220
So three to five exercises, do three to five reps,
link |
01:09:32.540
three to five sets, take three to five minutes rest
link |
01:09:35.800
in between and do it three to five times a week.
link |
01:09:38.580
So that can be as little as three sets of three
link |
01:09:42.040
for three exercises, three times a week.
link |
01:09:45.120
That's a 20 minute workout three times a week.
link |
01:09:47.300
It can be as high as five sets of five for five exercises,
link |
01:09:50.660
five days a week.
link |
01:09:52.080
So it's very broad and allows people to still stay
link |
01:09:54.620
within the domains of strength and power
link |
01:09:57.340
while still being able to move and contour toward
link |
01:10:00.140
their lifestyle and soreness and time and all those things.
link |
01:10:03.300
The only differentiator to pay attention to
link |
01:10:05.020
between power and strength is intensity.
link |
01:10:09.500
So if you want strength,
link |
01:10:11.060
this is now 85% plus of your max, right?
link |
01:10:14.460
If you want power, it needs to be a lot lighter
link |
01:10:16.660
because you need to move more towards the velocity
link |
01:10:19.220
into the spectrum because power is strength
link |
01:10:20.940
multiplied by speed.
link |
01:10:22.580
So while getting stronger by definition can help power,
link |
01:10:26.260
you probably want to spend more of your time
link |
01:10:27.800
in the 40% to 70% range, like plus or minus.
link |
01:10:33.440
So that's it.
link |
01:10:34.280
Both of them conceptually they'll work everything else.
link |
01:10:36.020
The exercise, the reps, the frequency,
link |
01:10:38.860
all that can be still in the three to five range.
link |
01:10:40.980
Just change the intensity depending
link |
01:10:42.220
on which outcome you want.
link |
01:10:43.500
So the nervous system obviously plays an important role
link |
01:10:47.520
at the level of nerves controlling
link |
01:10:49.320
the contraction of muscle fibers.
link |
01:10:51.140
But of course we have these upper motor neurons,
link |
01:10:53.320
which are the ones that reside in our brain
link |
01:10:55.540
that control the lower motor neurons that control muscle.
link |
01:10:58.360
And this takes us into the realm of where the mind is at
link |
01:11:02.080
during a particular movement.
link |
01:11:04.080
And to me, this is not an abstract thing.
link |
01:11:08.040
I can imagine doing workouts that are mainly focused
link |
01:11:11.080
on strength or mainly focused on hypertrophy.
link |
01:11:15.340
And in the case of strength, am I trying to move weights?
link |
01:11:19.340
And when I'm trying to generate hypertrophy,
link |
01:11:21.720
am I trying to quote unquote, challenge muscles?
link |
01:11:24.360
In other words, if I'm just trying to move a weight
link |
01:11:27.440
away from my body, pushing a bench press
link |
01:11:30.480
or an overhead press, I don't know that I want my mind
link |
01:11:34.160
thinking about the contraction of my medial delts.
link |
01:11:36.240
I think I want my mind in getting the weight overhead
link |
01:11:39.060
with the best proper form, best, excuse me, and proper form.
link |
01:11:43.420
And certainly with hypertrophy training,
link |
01:11:45.360
best improper form is going to be the target as well.
link |
01:11:49.080
But that simple, or I should say subtle mental shift
link |
01:11:54.240
changes the patterns of nerve fiber recruitment.
link |
01:11:58.760
So can we say to get stronger, focus on moving weights,
link |
01:12:02.640
still with proper form and safely,
link |
01:12:04.440
and to get hypertrophy, focus on challenging muscles,
link |
01:12:07.880
still with proper form and safely?
link |
01:12:10.640
It's very fair.
link |
01:12:12.120
Yeah, as a snapshot answer,
link |
01:12:14.800
it is a very fair thing to think about.
link |
01:12:17.880
Intentionality matters for both.
link |
01:12:20.080
In other words, if you look at some interesting science
link |
01:12:23.280
that's been done on power development and speed development,
link |
01:12:27.600
the intent to move is actually more important
link |
01:12:29.800
than the actual movement velocity.
link |
01:12:32.480
So if you're doing say something for power or strength,
link |
01:12:35.240
and you're doing just enough to get the bar up,
link |
01:12:38.000
that will result in less improvements in strength
link |
01:12:40.600
than even if you're moving at the exact same speed,
link |
01:12:43.180
but you're intending to move faster.
link |
01:12:45.480
And this is one of the reasons why good coaching matters.
link |
01:12:48.260
So if you're coaching an athlete
link |
01:12:49.520
through a power workout especially,
link |
01:12:51.560
and they're doing enough to just lift 50%
link |
01:12:53.880
of their one rep max,
link |
01:12:54.720
it's not going to generate as much speed development
link |
01:12:56.800
as them trying to move that bar as fast as they can,
link |
01:12:59.320
even if the net result is the same bar by velocity.
link |
01:13:02.560
Turns out nerves matter.
link |
01:13:04.400
That's a, I mean, I was about to say amazing,
link |
01:13:06.520
but as a neuroscientist,
link |
01:13:07.680
if I say amazing that nerves matter.
link |
01:13:09.240
What's amazing to me is what, if I understand correctly,
link |
01:13:12.040
what you're saying is that even if the bar is moving
link |
01:13:15.740
at the same speed, same weight,
link |
01:13:18.360
if my internal representation, my thoughts are,
link |
01:13:21.700
I'm trying to move this as fast as possible
link |
01:13:24.100
versus I'm just trying to get the bar away from me
link |
01:13:27.200
and get the weight up, I'm going to get different outcomes.
link |
01:13:30.720
Yep, this is quality of work, right?
link |
01:13:32.120
This is, did you do enough to just check off the box
link |
01:13:34.440
or did you actually strive for adaptation, right?
link |
01:13:39.060
Similar concept actually works for hypertrophy
link |
01:13:41.780
in terms of there is a handful of very recent studies
link |
01:13:45.200
that have looked at what we'll call
link |
01:13:46.040
the mind-muscle connection,
link |
01:13:47.760
and this is doing things like imagine a bicep curl,
link |
01:13:50.600
and you're simply looking at and watching your biceps
link |
01:13:53.160
and you're thinking about contracting it harder.
link |
01:13:54.840
Even though you execute the same repetitions
link |
01:13:56.560
at the same exact intensity,
link |
01:13:58.280
initial indications are the mind-body connection
link |
01:14:01.680
are going to result in more growth than not.
link |
01:14:05.140
You just gave authorization for people
link |
01:14:09.520
to look at their muscles contracting in the gym.
link |
01:14:11.560
Please do, yeah, of course, right?
link |
01:14:14.360
But the selfie is still ruled out.
link |
01:14:16.400
I'd rather you look at your muscles than your phone,
link |
01:14:18.760
so I'm fine with it.
link |
01:14:21.380
Those are initial, we don't have a large depth of research
link |
01:14:24.960
to support that and maybe some stuff will come encounter it,
link |
01:14:27.840
but it does, it matches what folks in that community
link |
01:14:31.020
have been saying for a very long time, right?
link |
01:14:32.740
There's actually some stuff on simply flexing in between.
link |
01:14:36.000
So if you've ever seen a bodybuilder,
link |
01:14:37.520
they'll do their set of bicep curls
link |
01:14:38.960
and then they'll get out and they'll flex and they'll check,
link |
01:14:40.360
and they're literally, this is what Arnold did, right?
link |
01:14:42.160
This is, if you go back to pumping an iron.
link |
01:14:43.760
Or college weight rooms, I should say.
link |
01:14:46.200
For some reason, there's something about that age group.
link |
01:14:48.640
There's a lot of checking of biceps in college weight rooms
link |
01:14:51.740
for reasons that escape me.
link |
01:14:53.280
If you ever interact with my wife,
link |
01:14:55.860
she will be the first to tell you,
link |
01:14:56.900
I cannot walk past a mirror without like,
link |
01:14:59.760
I'm checking something out.
link |
01:15:00.600
You can't?
link |
01:15:01.440
Or that she can't?
link |
01:15:02.260
I can't.
link |
01:15:03.100
Not her, me.
link |
01:15:03.940
Like I'm the one that cannot walk past.
link |
01:15:04.760
All right.
link |
01:15:05.600
Well then I'll be careful not to disparage that.
link |
01:15:06.440
It has nothing to do with the hypertrophy,
link |
01:15:08.360
but I'm just like, I'm a muscle guy.
link |
01:15:09.780
So I'm always like thinking and tinkering or whatever.
link |
01:15:12.360
But yeah, it is, I think it's very much worth your time
link |
01:15:17.200
to do a higher quality training session,
link |
01:15:20.440
be more intentional, be present,
link |
01:15:23.560
than just executing the same exact workout.
link |
01:15:25.520
I think that's globally very clear to be to your advantage.
link |
01:15:28.560
So if you're thinking, look, I'm gonna,
link |
01:15:31.480
like I don't wanna work out today.
link |
01:15:33.120
I got all this going on or I'm tired or whatever.
link |
01:15:34.840
I'm just gonna do the workout anyways and get through it.
link |
01:15:37.280
Okay.
link |
01:15:38.660
If you can go, you know what though?
link |
01:15:39.920
Like I'm gonna cut 15 minutes out of this thing.
link |
01:15:42.840
I'm gonna get my head right.
link |
01:15:43.800
I'm gonna go get 20 minutes of quality work done.
link |
01:15:46.800
That's your best option by far.
link |
01:15:49.920
You alluded to the fact that even just looking
link |
01:15:53.880
at a particular muscle might benefit
link |
01:15:57.440
in terms of the number of fibers you can recruit
link |
01:15:59.380
or its potential for hypertrophy.
link |
01:16:02.560
I've heard before and I certainly have experienced
link |
01:16:05.080
that muscles that for whatever reason,
link |
01:16:07.700
genetics or sports that one played, et cetera,
link |
01:16:11.020
muscles that we find that we can contract
link |
01:16:13.940
to the point of almost a slightly painful contraction
link |
01:16:16.520
seem to grow more readily than muscles
link |
01:16:18.860
that we can't recruit very easily.
link |
01:16:20.680
And the reason I mentioned sports that we played earlier
link |
01:16:24.040
is you just have to watch the Olympics
link |
01:16:26.240
to see that swimmers obviously
link |
01:16:27.840
are very good at engaging their lats.
link |
01:16:30.500
You look at the gymnasts,
link |
01:16:31.340
they seem to be very good at engaging everything.
link |
01:16:33.260
And they go through a huge number
link |
01:16:34.460
of different dynamic movements that explains that.
link |
01:16:38.320
So I find that if people say,
link |
01:16:41.400
oh, I can't get stronger in this
link |
01:16:43.160
or my whatever body part is weak
link |
01:16:46.000
in terms of its inability to engage hypertrophy,
link |
01:16:49.040
that oftentimes that can be because of an inability
link |
01:16:51.680
to engage those upper motor neurons
link |
01:16:54.480
to deliberately isolate those muscles.
link |
01:16:57.360
Are there ways that people can learn
link |
01:16:59.720
to engage particular muscle groups more effectively
link |
01:17:04.320
over time for sake of hypertrophy or strength
link |
01:17:06.800
or for cases of trying to overcome injury potential
link |
01:17:10.560
or injury because imbalances are bad across the board?
link |
01:17:13.880
Yeah, this is actually very common
link |
01:17:15.400
and I think everyone has probably gone through this.
link |
01:17:18.080
There's some part that you just can't get going.
link |
01:17:20.080
For me, that was the lats.
link |
01:17:21.580
That was the rhomboids, so my back muscles.
link |
01:17:23.520
For years, I couldn't activate my lats or my rhomboids.
link |
01:17:26.880
These are the muscle groups
link |
01:17:27.920
that connect your shoulder blades.
link |
01:17:29.080
So if you try to squeeze your shoulder blades together,
link |
01:17:30.920
that set of muscles there are called your rhomboids.
link |
01:17:33.240
Your lats, of course, are more vertical
link |
01:17:35.040
and pull you kind of up and down.
link |
01:17:36.680
No matter how many lat pull-downs I did,
link |
01:17:39.260
bent rows, pull-ups, I could never see any development there,
link |
01:17:42.200
no increase in strength.
link |
01:17:43.800
And it took me probably a decade to figure out
link |
01:17:47.400
how the hell to actually get these things on.
link |
01:17:48.880
In fact, if you would have asked me,
link |
01:17:50.880
even in my college years as a college football player,
link |
01:17:53.600
hey, flex your lats, like show me your lats,
link |
01:17:55.380
you would have seen no movement there.
link |
01:17:58.560
When I was doing a pull-up, in that particular case,
link |
01:18:01.300
the only way I could get the bar to move
link |
01:18:02.640
was by using my biceps, right?
link |
01:18:05.520
So it's a synergistic muscle.
link |
01:18:06.640
It's supposed to be a secondary or tertiary muscle
link |
01:18:08.760
in that movement, but for me, it was primer
link |
01:18:11.160
because of my overstrength in my biceps
link |
01:18:14.700
coupled with my lack of activation in the lats.
link |
01:18:18.080
So you're compensating the same movement.
link |
01:18:19.980
Actually, kind of an easy way to think about this is,
link |
01:18:22.800
imagine doing a bent row.
link |
01:18:24.240
So imagine you're bent over kind of at a 45 degree
link |
01:18:26.580
or a horizontal angle, and you're gonna pull
link |
01:18:28.600
a barbell to your belly button, all right?
link |
01:18:31.520
Now you can actually do that exact same movement
link |
01:18:33.440
with very little back muscle activation
link |
01:18:36.520
by simply flexing your elbows more.
link |
01:18:38.460
And so you think the barbell's going all the way down,
link |
01:18:40.440
it's coming all the way up to touching my belly,
link |
01:18:42.200
and you think you're doing
link |
01:18:43.040
a great back development exercise,
link |
01:18:45.420
when in fact, because of the way
link |
01:18:46.860
that you're executing the movement,
link |
01:18:48.520
you're getting very little back development.
link |
01:18:50.400
And this is a really good example
link |
01:18:52.160
of why someone has done a specific exercise
link |
01:18:54.720
many, many, many times, but yet failed
link |
01:18:56.760
to see development in a muscle group,
link |
01:18:58.960
which goes back to earlier part of our conversation,
link |
01:19:01.160
which is why exercises themselves
link |
01:19:02.740
do not determine the adaptation.
link |
01:19:04.840
It's the execution that matters, right?
link |
01:19:07.000
It's the technique, it's the rep range,
link |
01:19:08.720
all of those are gonna determine your actual result.
link |
01:19:11.720
So if any time you're banging your head against the wall
link |
01:19:14.760
and thinking like, why am I not getting movement here,
link |
01:19:18.200
growth or strength or whatever,
link |
01:19:19.960
it's almost one of those,
link |
01:19:21.380
it's guaranteed to be one of those areas, right?
link |
01:19:23.280
You're probably not getting the muscle groups to activate.
link |
01:19:27.080
In that particular example, just because we're here,
link |
01:19:30.000
try, imagine doing that bent row.
link |
01:19:32.100
Instead of pulling the barbell to your belly,
link |
01:19:34.400
squeeze your shoulder blades together first,
link |
01:19:36.380
as far as they can possibly go,
link |
01:19:38.280
and then bring your elbows up
link |
01:19:39.820
without changing the angle of your elbow.
link |
01:19:43.320
So in other words, without bringing your hand
link |
01:19:44.740
closer to your shoulder.
link |
01:19:46.180
So keep that same angle and come up
link |
01:19:47.440
as high as you possibly can,
link |
01:19:49.140
and then finish out the movement.
link |
01:19:50.680
That's going to guarantee a utilization first
link |
01:19:53.520
of the back muscles and a finishing with the biceps
link |
01:19:57.900
at the end, which is how that movement is supposed to go.
link |
01:20:00.600
So how do you coach into that?
link |
01:20:03.080
Well, it can be a number of things.
link |
01:20:04.440
Whenever I'm diagnosing movement quality,
link |
01:20:07.800
I look for a handful of things,
link |
01:20:09.380
but very first one is awareness.
link |
01:20:10.880
You'd be surprised how many folks,
link |
01:20:13.440
when you just simply tell them that muscle group right there
link |
01:20:15.520
and maybe you give them a tactical prompt,
link |
01:20:17.520
so you touch it or you put something against it.
link |
01:20:19.820
This is actually why, sorry, I'm jumping over the place,
link |
01:20:22.180
but this is why things like a belt work very well
link |
01:20:26.160
for actually increasing abdominal strength.
link |
01:20:28.880
So a misconception out there is if you wear like a belt
link |
01:20:31.320
when you're lifting,
link |
01:20:32.560
then the belt kind of does all the work for you
link |
01:20:34.320
and your abs get weaker.
link |
01:20:35.940
That can happen, but the exact opposite can happen as well.
link |
01:20:39.920
So if you take a belt, for example,
link |
01:20:41.800
and you cinch it down really tight,
link |
01:20:43.800
and then you just completely disregard your midsection,
link |
01:20:46.360
you will see a loss of strength in your midsection
link |
01:20:48.880
because now the belt is doing the work.
link |
01:20:50.520
But if you put the belt on just a little bit,
link |
01:20:52.800
kind of tight to where you get some sensory feedback
link |
01:20:55.640
and you think about using that belt
link |
01:20:58.480
as a way to activate the core musculature,
link |
01:21:00.520
you will actually see a higher,
link |
01:21:01.640
and if we look at like EMG activation,
link |
01:21:04.160
the core muscles would be activated higher
link |
01:21:06.680
to a greater extent than when the belt is off.
link |
01:21:09.520
Because of proprioceptive feedback.
link |
01:21:11.040
100%.
link |
01:21:11.880
And for those that are wondering what proprioceptive feedback
link |
01:21:14.560
is, proprioceptive feedback is that there are nerves
link |
01:21:17.920
that extend out to the muscles
link |
01:21:19.160
that control muscle contractions,
link |
01:21:20.400
but then there are sensory inputs from the skin and muscle
link |
01:21:23.160
that go back into the nervous system
link |
01:21:24.520
and those work in concert.
link |
01:21:25.780
And that feedback is proprioceptive.
link |
01:21:27.760
I think it literally translates to a knowledge
link |
01:21:31.260
of where one's limbs are and what's happening on those.
link |
01:21:34.360
In space, yeah.
link |
01:21:35.500
I've seen, I don't have a training partner,
link |
01:21:39.440
but I've seen in gyms where someone will be training
link |
01:21:42.280
and someone would tap the muscle of the person
link |
01:21:44.960
who's doing the work in order to,
link |
01:21:47.120
this is consensual tapping of other people's muscles,
link |
01:21:49.200
not walking around touching people's muscles, please.
link |
01:21:53.800
To provide that proprioceptive feedback
link |
01:21:56.380
so that the person doing the exercises
link |
01:21:58.400
becomes more aware of the muscle
link |
01:22:00.540
that they're supposed to be training.
link |
01:22:01.680
And it seems that that's probably an effective practice.
link |
01:22:04.480
Yeah.
link |
01:22:05.480
I'll give you two examples.
link |
01:22:06.680
I'll go to the back with that pulling movement,
link |
01:22:08.320
but then I'll stay on the belt really quickly.
link |
01:22:09.900
So a very easy example that you can do right now listening,
link |
01:22:13.480
and I learned this from Brian McKenzie,
link |
01:22:14.800
our mutual friend, right?
link |
01:22:15.880
So if you take your hands and open them up,
link |
01:22:18.300
like you make an L with both your hands,
link |
01:22:20.960
and I'll take those and put them around your waist
link |
01:22:23.180
just above your hip bones.
link |
01:22:25.160
Now, what I want you to do is press out
link |
01:22:26.760
as hard as you can on your hands with your core.
link |
01:22:29.760
And you can feel a lot of core activation.
link |
01:22:32.000
Most people think core activation
link |
01:22:33.560
is the front of your stomach, right?
link |
01:22:35.560
Your six pack.
link |
01:22:36.640
What you need to do is create a cylinder around your back.
link |
01:22:38.760
So it's the front, it's the side, and it's the back.
link |
01:22:42.360
So if you take your two fingers, point them.
link |
01:22:44.960
Now put them just outside your belly button.
link |
01:22:47.280
Can you move your fingers by just moving your ab muscles?
link |
01:22:51.440
90% of people can do yes.
link |
01:22:53.800
Same exact thing.
link |
01:22:55.080
Now go to that same position
link |
01:22:56.720
just above what's called your ASIS,
link |
01:22:58.680
so your anterior superior iliac spine,
link |
01:23:00.280
right up that front of your hip bone, right in the front.
link |
01:23:03.600
Can you now move?
link |
01:23:05.580
Great, 50% of people are not gonna get any movement there.
link |
01:23:08.760
Really?
link |
01:23:09.600
Take your thumb and go right above your PSIS.
link |
01:23:12.900
My what?
link |
01:23:13.740
PSIS, posterior superior iliac spine, right?
link |
01:23:16.880
Now, can you move?
link |
01:23:20.620
Most likely no.
link |
01:23:21.720
Sort of if I do a mini little back extension.
link |
01:23:24.800
Don't, just with your core musculature.
link |
01:23:28.160
Barely.
link |
01:23:29.000
Yeah, 90% of people can't.
link |
01:23:31.480
If you can't perform that contraction,
link |
01:23:34.080
you can't stabilize your spine.
link |
01:23:36.160
So only way to get stabilization in your spine
link |
01:23:38.400
is then to go through hyperextension.
link |
01:23:41.160
And now that's a compression strategy
link |
01:23:42.560
you're putting on your spine.
link |
01:23:43.480
It's better than rounding your back, like going forward,
link |
01:23:46.380
but overextension is not great either.
link |
01:23:48.840
So you wanna be able to flex the musculature
link |
01:23:51.040
in a cylindric fashion so you have control.
link |
01:23:53.800
So if you go back to our very first things
link |
01:23:55.240
and with your hands open and you put them right here,
link |
01:23:57.120
and if you're like, I can't get activation,
link |
01:23:59.480
if you pay attention to your thumb, right?
link |
01:24:02.240
Now just move your thumb.
link |
01:24:04.520
And now you see activation back there, right?
link |
01:24:07.040
Boom.
link |
01:24:07.880
Now if you can imagine turning that on just a little bit,
link |
01:24:10.360
and now notice how I can do this, by the way,
link |
01:24:12.460
at the same time I'm talking.
link |
01:24:14.200
If you have to go,
link |
01:24:17.600
we don't have control, right?
link |
01:24:18.480
So you have to be able to separate breath from brace.
link |
01:24:22.680
So now if I can put myself in a position,
link |
01:24:24.700
and Kelly Starrett has always said 20%,
link |
01:24:27.320
give me 20% activation here.
link |
01:24:29.440
And now I can squat, I can hinge, I can jump.
link |
01:24:31.620
I don't need to be locked down to 100% scream
link |
01:24:34.400
to be able to brace my spine.
link |
01:24:35.820
That's gonna be ineffective and wasteful.
link |
01:24:38.040
I wanna be here.
link |
01:24:39.100
Well, the belt provides that proprioceptive feedback
link |
01:24:41.600
where I can put it on 20%.
link |
01:24:44.020
And it just is a reminder,
link |
01:24:45.940
if I don't press against the belt,
link |
01:24:47.360
the belt slides and falls down a little bit
link |
01:24:48.960
because it's not on super tight.
link |
01:24:50.520
If it's on so dang tight, it's doing the work and I forget.
link |
01:24:53.920
So we just want a little bit of feedback there.
link |
01:24:57.080
Same thing with your upper back.
link |
01:24:58.400
If you're having a difficult time activating those rhomboids
link |
01:25:00.440
or those lats, someone can do a simple thing
link |
01:25:02.880
where they take their finger,
link |
01:25:04.080
put it right between your shoulder blades.
link |
01:25:05.880
And you just tell them things like,
link |
01:25:07.040
hey, squeeze my finger, squeeze my finger.
link |
01:25:09.320
As you're doing your bent row where you're pulled down,
link |
01:25:11.600
you can touch the lat.
link |
01:25:13.080
You can do just visualization stuff.
link |
01:25:15.200
So just imagine like a 3D rendering of that muscle group.
link |
01:25:19.360
And you're watching that muscle group contract.
link |
01:25:21.000
It's very powerful and very effective to do it.
link |
01:25:23.360
So a touch, a visual,
link |
01:25:25.340
all this stuff can help get people to activate.
link |
01:25:29.520
Outside of simple awareness,
link |
01:25:31.700
typically eccentric overload is a very effective way
link |
01:25:34.840
for activation of a difficult to target muscle.
link |
01:25:38.120
So the lowering of the bar
link |
01:25:39.800
or the lowering of the weight.
link |
01:25:41.220
The movement of the weight away from the body
link |
01:25:43.680
is not necessarily always lowering
link |
01:25:45.040
because that kind of depends on what
link |
01:25:46.040
muscle group you're doing.
link |
01:25:50.280
Things like a pull-up.
link |
01:25:51.520
Okay, so if I'm going to do a pull-up
link |
01:25:53.600
and I have poor lat activation,
link |
01:25:54.820
I can still get the pull-up muscle movement
link |
01:25:57.080
executed by contraction of the biceps
link |
01:25:59.100
and things like that.
link |
01:25:59.940
However, to make the movement simpler,
link |
01:26:01.960
I'm going to go all the way to the top.
link |
01:26:03.480
So imagine stepping on a box or something,
link |
01:26:05.080
going all the way to that top of that pull-up position.
link |
01:26:07.360
And starting from there,
link |
01:26:08.200
I want you to simply lower it under control.
link |
01:26:11.480
And so you're just simply breaking the movement down
link |
01:26:13.440
into smaller pieces that allow you
link |
01:26:14.800
to focus on the execution more.
link |
01:26:17.600
It's going to be great.
link |
01:26:18.440
Eccentrics are great for strength development,
link |
01:26:20.400
very good for hypertrophy,
link |
01:26:22.040
and allow you to focus on control.
link |
01:26:23.680
I'm willing to bet a huge percentage of you out there
link |
01:26:26.600
who've like, I've never had a sore lat.
link |
01:26:28.480
You know, I've done a lot of pull-ups and things like that.
link |
01:26:30.840
If you do that eccentric only,
link |
01:26:32.200
you'll probably wake up the next day going,
link |
01:26:33.280
oh gosh, I feel it there.
link |
01:26:36.560
And that's a sign,
link |
01:26:37.400
even if you didn't feel it in the workout,
link |
01:26:38.440
but I got a little sore the next day,
link |
01:26:40.840
keep down that path.
link |
01:26:41.920
And then eventually you'll be able to do a concentric,
link |
01:26:45.200
maybe take a break,
link |
01:26:46.560
maybe do an isometric where you just hold that position,
link |
01:26:49.320
and eventually work that into a progression
link |
01:26:52.120
where you can do the concentric, eccentric,
link |
01:26:53.800
and isometric portions and get activation.
link |
01:26:56.080
So that may take you six weeks,
link |
01:26:59.120
may take you six months,
link |
01:27:00.640
but that's generally a pretty good strategy
link |
01:27:02.000
for learning how to activate a muscle group.
link |
01:27:04.000
Terrific suggestions.
link |
01:27:05.240
Is it true that eccentric emphasized movements
link |
01:27:08.940
might require a little bit longer recovery
link |
01:27:11.000
or they lead to more soreness than concentric movements?
link |
01:27:13.560
Yeah, they typically can,
link |
01:27:14.720
but they're also higher force output.
link |
01:27:16.920
So very good for strength development,
link |
01:27:19.280
but they're going to lead on average to more soreness.
link |
01:27:22.520
So more potential for intracellular disruption,
link |
01:27:25.840
that is going to be associated with pain.
link |
01:27:27.200
There's not as much,
link |
01:27:28.320
people will like to explain muscle soreness
link |
01:27:31.240
as a result of microtrauma and micro tears in the muscle.
link |
01:27:34.200
That can happen, but that's not the norm.
link |
01:27:36.500
Most of the time it is things like disruption of calcium
link |
01:27:40.660
that's going to lead to excessive swelling,
link |
01:27:42.480
excessive pressure,
link |
01:27:43.320
and that's going to be then translated as extreme pain.
link |
01:27:45.820
So that's probably explaining more of muscle soreness
link |
01:27:48.000
than actually microtrauma.
link |
01:27:50.840
Terrific.
link |
01:27:51.680
I was going to get to breathing later,
link |
01:27:53.360
but maybe just for now,
link |
01:27:54.800
if we can do a brief little foray into breathing
link |
01:28:00.520
as it relates to weight training.
link |
01:28:02.600
Is there a prescriptive for how to breathe
link |
01:28:05.920
during resistance training?
link |
01:28:07.960
Here I'm thinking with weights,
link |
01:28:09.460
not necessarily body weight only movements,
link |
01:28:11.280
although I suppose it could be,
link |
01:28:12.600
that applies 75% of the time to 75% of the people.
link |
01:28:17.440
What I was taught,
link |
01:28:18.320
and I'm hoping you're going to tell me this was wrong,
link |
01:28:19.920
because then there might be more benefits awaiting me,
link |
01:28:23.360
is that I should exhale on the effort
link |
01:28:27.480
and inhale on the lesser effort portion of an exercise.
link |
01:28:33.000
Is that true?
link |
01:28:34.520
Is there a better way to breathe?
link |
01:28:37.260
There is a better way to think about it.
link |
01:28:39.560
So number one, if you can breathe and brace,
link |
01:28:43.200
then this conversation goes away.
link |
01:28:44.960
So if you can maintain intramuscular,
link |
01:28:48.880
intra-abdominal pressure while breathing,
link |
01:28:51.720
then I don't really care when you breathe.
link |
01:28:53.980
Very challenging to do at very heavy weights.
link |
01:28:57.440
If we flag this on two areas of a paradigm,
link |
01:29:01.040
paradigm one over here, you're going to do a set of 30,
link |
01:29:04.400
and you're going to do front squats
link |
01:29:05.480
where a barbell is sitting on your throat.
link |
01:29:08.280
If you don't take a breath,
link |
01:29:10.280
this is going to end one way and one way only,
link |
01:29:12.320
you passing out.
link |
01:29:13.820
Clearly has to be some breathing strategy.
link |
01:29:15.280
The other end of the spectrum is,
link |
01:29:16.400
let's say you're going to do a vertical jump.
link |
01:29:18.520
You don't need any amount of breath there.
link |
01:29:19.960
It's never going to happen, right?
link |
01:29:21.160
The question is, what about in the middle, right?
link |
01:29:23.720
So I'm doing some sort of strength training there.
link |
01:29:25.740
Well, number one, make sure you're braced
link |
01:29:27.680
and then you can get away with less need to worry about it.
link |
01:29:33.760
In general, a decent strategy is to maintain a breath hold
link |
01:29:38.480
during the lowering or eccentric
link |
01:29:40.440
or most dangerous part of the movement,
link |
01:29:41.920
and then you can exhale on the concentric portion.
link |
01:29:44.000
So if the bench press is our example,
link |
01:29:46.160
if you held in, braced, lowered under control,
link |
01:29:50.600
and now started the concentric pushing away force,
link |
01:29:52.520
and then you wanted to take an expiration,
link |
01:29:55.720
during the last half of the concentric portion,
link |
01:29:57.880
that's an okay strategy.
link |
01:29:58.800
If you're going to do a single rep,
link |
01:30:01.040
you don't need to worry about it.
link |
01:30:02.500
You can just avoid or omit breathing entirely.
link |
01:30:04.800
You're going to be just fine.
link |
01:30:05.840
If you're doing more than that,
link |
01:30:07.140
especially three to four to five to seven, eight,
link |
01:30:09.720
you're going to have to have some breathing strategy.
link |
01:30:11.720
A very common one is probably every third breath.
link |
01:30:16.100
I'm going to do like,
link |
01:30:17.100
exhale on the third.
link |
01:30:17.940
Reset, re-breathe, something like that.
link |
01:30:20.420
If you feel like you need to breathe after every one,
link |
01:30:21.940
that's okay, but it's going to get wasteful
link |
01:30:23.540
because you have to take time in between reps
link |
01:30:25.580
of sitting there.
link |
01:30:26.420
If it's a squat, that's different versus a deadlift.
link |
01:30:29.620
If you're resting at the bottom.
link |
01:30:30.660
So there is a little bit of game here.
link |
01:30:32.020
So in general, though, is that 75,
link |
01:30:35.180
75 kind of really thrown out, you threw out.
link |
01:30:37.820
Breathe in, do the lowering, and exhale on the out.
link |
01:30:42.140
If you have to.
link |
01:30:43.460
Less reps,
link |
01:30:44.220
don't worry about more reps than you need to come up with some sort of breathing
link |
01:30:47.220
strategy.
link |
01:30:48.060
How about breathing in between sets and maybe even after the workout?
link |
01:30:52.700
Yeah.
link |
01:30:53.540
This is something I think a lot of people overlook.
link |
01:30:55.460
Like,
link |
01:30:56.300
and because that it is the case that recovery has to do both with the specific
link |
01:31:02.300
activation and to muscles and the nervous system,
link |
01:31:05.340
but also the attacks on the nervous system can also take place between sets.
link |
01:31:09.860
I mean, if you're really geared up between sets,
link |
01:31:11.940
and then you've got adrenaline, you know,
link |
01:31:14.300
as high in between sets or close to it as you are during your sets,
link |
01:31:17.340
you can imagine that the recovery would take longer or at least that you're not
link |
01:31:20.860
spending adrenaline in the most efficient way if there is such a thing.
link |
01:31:24.300
Yeah, fair.
link |
01:31:25.980
You're not going to see any athlete that I work with just breathe in between,
link |
01:31:31.260
whether it's in between innings or in between rounds,
link |
01:31:33.780
every single one of them is going to go back,
link |
01:31:35.660
sit in the stool,
link |
01:31:36.500
and they're going to immediately be into a breathing routine.
link |
01:31:38.780
A very intense routine.
link |
01:31:40.380
A very intentional one. They're a little bit different for every athlete,
link |
01:31:42.740
depending on the sport.
link |
01:31:44.140
Even PGA golfer,
link |
01:31:46.500
there's going to be a,
link |
01:31:48.020
we just hit our ball,
link |
01:31:49.740
we're moving to the next one,
link |
01:31:50.580
we're going to go into a breathing strategy.
link |
01:31:52.060
Every one of them.
link |
01:31:52.900
It's a huge area of potential benefit and consequence if you're just ignoring it.
link |
01:31:58.860
In general,
link |
01:31:59.700
we want to do any sort of calming breath we want to restore.
link |
01:32:03.620
It depends on if the,
link |
01:32:06.860
it depends on what we're combating.
link |
01:32:07.980
Are we combating low oxygen or high stress?
link |
01:32:10.060
Or high CO2?
link |
01:32:11.380
So that strategy is going to be a little bit different.
link |
01:32:12.940
But in general,
link |
01:32:13.580
that is a huge time opportunity to get better.
link |
01:32:16.540
In fact,
link |
01:32:18.340
people can go back and listen to some of your earlier episodes where you talked
link |
01:32:21.100
about what you have spoken about,
link |
01:32:23.660
I think,
link |
01:32:24.100
on this show.
link |
01:32:26.020
When neuroplasticity works.
link |
01:32:29.340
And if you're losing that opportunity post exercise,
link |
01:32:33.060
you're leaving gains on the table,
link |
01:32:34.500
if you will.
link |
01:32:34.900
So not only are you going to see every of the athletes that I work with mostly have
link |
01:32:38.260
a breathing strategy in competition,
link |
01:32:40.980
we're not going to just finish a workout,
link |
01:32:42.740
high five,
link |
01:32:43.260
drink water and walk out of the gym.
link |
01:32:44.940
There will be a down regulation strategy that is heavily involved with some sort of
link |
01:32:48.700
light control as well as breath control.
link |
01:32:51.100
The individual prescription on that,
link |
01:32:53.660
there's a ton of variation with what you can do.
link |
01:32:56.460
The easiest thing is do something that calms you down.
link |
01:32:59.260
Most likely that's going to be moved towards as much nasal breathing as you can possibly do.
link |
01:33:03.780
And a really easy rule of thumb is a double exhale length relative to inhale.
link |
01:33:09.540
So if you need to take a like four second inhale,
link |
01:33:12.740
double that time and breathe out for eight seconds.
link |
01:33:15.460
A box breathing is fine.
link |
01:33:16.740
So equal inhale,
link |
01:33:18.220
equal hold,
link |
01:33:19.380
equal exhale,
link |
01:33:20.740
equal hold.
link |
01:33:21.300
So four second inhale for second exhale,
link |
01:33:23.700
hold,
link |
01:33:24.220
et cetera,
link |
01:33:24.580
et cetera.
link |
01:33:25.300
A triangle is fine too.
link |
01:33:26.540
There's a lot of ways you can get really complicated.
link |
01:33:29.660
Like what Brian McKenzie will do and Rob,
link |
01:33:31.380
those guys have,
link |
01:33:32.380
you can get all kinds of systems for inhale, exhale control.
link |
01:33:36.100
It can be optimized,
link |
01:33:36.820
but some strategy of calm.
link |
01:33:39.660
We're going to almost always put you on your back or close and then we're going to cover light.
link |
01:33:45.340
We can do some,
link |
01:33:46.660
like we've done actually a number of musical interventions as well,
link |
01:33:51.380
but you can as just as simple as sit down in a locker room if you have to and just breathe for five minutes.
link |
01:33:58.820
That alone is going to be productive.
link |
01:34:01.500
That's great.
link |
01:34:01.900
If you're breathing in the locker room for five minutes,
link |
01:34:03.660
I suggest closing your eyes or you get some funny looks and if you'll still get funny looks,
link |
01:34:07.460
but you won't see people looking at you.
link |
01:34:08.620
Yeah,
link |
01:34:08.780
exactly.
link |
01:34:09.820
I love this.
link |
01:34:10.580
And I started doing this because you and Brian McKenzie informed me about this and it completely changed the rate of recovery for me.
link |
01:34:18.220
I realized that I was leaving workouts,
link |
01:34:20.100
both endurance workouts and strength,
link |
01:34:22.340
hypertrophy workouts,
link |
01:34:23.820
feeling great,
link |
01:34:25.180
but looking at my phone,
link |
01:34:26.220
getting right into email and meetings,
link |
01:34:28.180
not concentrating on my breathing.
link |
01:34:29.660
And all I did was to introduce on your recommendation a five minute down regulation.
link |
01:34:34.980
So exhale emphasized breathing of a bunch of different varieties,
link |
01:34:38.460
physiological size,
link |
01:34:39.300
box breathing,
link |
01:34:40.140
exhale emphasized twice as long as the inhale component for five minutes.
link |
01:34:44.620
And I noticed two things.
link |
01:34:46.580
One,
link |
01:34:47.220
I recovered more quickly,
link |
01:34:48.660
workout to workout.
link |
01:34:49.380
No question about it.
link |
01:34:50.460
Yeah.
link |
01:34:50.900
The numbers told me that.
link |
01:34:52.980
And the other is that I used to have this dip in energy that would occur three or four hours after a hard workout.
link |
01:35:00.660
And I always thought that had to do with the fact that I had generally eaten a meal at some point post workout.
link |
01:35:04.980
Turns out it wasn't the meal at all.
link |
01:35:06.820
It's that that that adrenaline ramp up during the workouts.
link |
01:35:11.340
I wasn't clamping that at the end.
link |
01:35:13.700
And so I think eventually it just crashed.
link |
01:35:15.780
And then three or four hours later,
link |
01:35:17.140
I'm having a hard time even reading what's on the screen of my computer thinking maybe it's the screen.
link |
01:35:21.300
Maybe it was what I ate for lunch.
link |
01:35:22.220
Turns out the down regulations allowed me to work through the afternoon with no issues whatsoever.
link |
01:35:29.020
Yeah.
link |
01:35:29.220
It's really been quite powerful.
link |
01:35:30.700
And so I'm grateful to you for that.
link |
01:35:32.140
I think this is something that I think 98 percent of people are not doing.
link |
01:35:36.460
And it's only five minutes.
link |
01:35:37.660
You don't even have to do five.
link |
01:35:39.100
Give me three.
link |
01:35:40.420
If you really have to push it,
link |
01:35:41.740
give me three.
link |
01:35:42.580
And you can even do this.
link |
01:35:44.500
You can save time.
link |
01:35:45.500
You can do this in the shower if you have to.
link |
01:35:47.340
So you're you're done.
link |
01:35:48.380
You're finished.
link |
01:35:49.660
Drink of water,
link |
01:35:50.260
whatever it has to be.
link |
01:35:51.020
And you're getting in a shower.
link |
01:35:52.020
You're getting ready.
link |
01:35:53.380
Just give me three minutes in the shower.
link |
01:35:55.220
It's not ideal, but as little as that, it can pay huge dividends.
link |
01:35:59.220
You need some sort of internal signal that we're safe.
link |
01:36:03.540
Like throttle down here.
link |
01:36:05.660
We're going to move on.
link |
01:36:06.860
That has to happen.
link |
01:36:08.780
I could go on and on here, but I think we're making the same point kind of over again.
link |
01:36:11.540
It's a big deal to do it.
link |
01:36:12.740
Yeah.
link |
01:36:12.980
And you're saving energy.
link |
01:36:14.060
I mean, the energy here is neural energy.
link |
01:36:17.020
I think fighters do this.
link |
01:36:18.140
Good fighters learn to do this between rounds.
link |
01:36:20.100
Yeah.
link |
01:36:20.380
Sprinters learn to do this between events.
link |
01:36:22.860
I think humans should learn how to do this between any, you know, sort of interval type
link |
01:36:27.980
activity, including work, social engagement.
link |
01:36:30.260
I mean, this is such a powerful tool.
link |
01:36:32.660
Do this for one minute after every important, whether it's an individual high volatile interaction
link |
01:36:40.580
or if it's a, you just did a nice 45 minute sprint to work and you're deep into it or
link |
01:36:44.700
whatever, fine.
link |
01:36:45.700
Just give me one minute.
link |
01:36:46.700
Set your alarm just one minute and that also will pay dividends.
link |
01:36:51.260
I love it.
link |
01:36:52.260
And as I said, it's made a outsize, a different positive difference on my training, but also
link |
01:36:59.300
activities outside my training, which is for me, I'm not a professional athlete.
link |
01:37:02.620
I trained for health and because I enjoy it, but when a really hard workout starts to interfere
link |
01:37:06.820
with the ability to do the other things in life, that's not a good situation.
link |
01:37:10.380
So this is really terrific.
link |
01:37:12.940
There's a lot more in each of those categories of strength and hypertrophy, but you've given
link |
01:37:17.120
us a tremendous amount of valuable information there.
link |
01:37:20.420
Maybe now would be a good time to shift to endurance and of the four types of endurance.
link |
01:37:27.180
And maybe you could remind us what those are.
link |
01:37:29.480
What do you think are the two that most people are seeking or pursuing in terms of health
link |
01:37:34.240
and aesthetics, right?
link |
01:37:35.240
I mean, I realize that we probably have athletes out there as well, but I think when I think
link |
01:37:40.080
health and aesthetics, I think, okay, the ability to do sustained endurance, 30 plus
link |
01:37:45.100
minutes of some ongoing activity, how does one maximize that work?
link |
01:37:50.520
What are the modifiable variables?
link |
01:37:52.400
And then maybe you could tell us what the other major category is that people ought
link |
01:37:56.500
to have in their kit.
link |
01:37:58.660
Okay.
link |
01:37:59.860
So starting off with exercise choice.
link |
01:38:02.620
One thing, as soon as we cross into the endurance world, and this is true for all four of those
link |
01:38:06.460
categories, exercise choice needs to be very concerned with eccentric landing, right?
link |
01:38:12.740
So you don't need to avoid it, but you need to recognize it relative or compare it against
link |
01:38:17.980
those other strength and speed ones.
link |
01:38:20.180
The volume is low on those ones.
link |
01:38:21.880
So if you have some eccentric absorption, it's okay.
link |
01:38:24.140
But as we sort of talked about five minutes ago, more eccentric means greater chance of
link |
01:38:27.840
muscle damage, soreness.
link |
01:38:29.700
So if you take something and magnify it across 30 minutes or even five minutes, but have
link |
01:38:35.980
maximal exertion, you have a recipe for blowing up.
link |
01:38:40.180
You can imagine I haven't run in forever and I've listened to this Huberman Lab podcast
link |
01:38:44.460
and I'm, okay, I'm going to get into my zone two training, whatever, whatever.
link |
01:38:48.620
And I start jogging.
link |
01:38:49.620
I'm going to do, you know, I remember when I used to be able to do 25 and you just do
link |
01:38:52.900
a 25 minute jog.
link |
01:38:54.700
The amount of eccentric landing that just occurred on every single step, because you're
link |
01:38:57.860
never with running, even slow running, you never have two feet on the ground at the same
link |
01:39:02.500
time.
link |
01:39:03.500
One foot land, one foot land, your entire body mass plus gravity onto one leg at a time,
link |
01:39:08.820
repeated now hundreds of times.
link |
01:39:11.300
That eccentric landing is going to cause tremendous soreness.
link |
01:39:14.660
Your quads are going to go, you're probably going to get shin splints, which is what,
link |
01:39:19.380
this isn't, those are entirely caused by eccentric landing and when the tissue is not ready to
link |
01:39:24.100
tolerate that.
link |
01:39:25.420
If you're not landing correctly, this is when knee pain happens, back pain, shoulder neck
link |
01:39:29.000
pain because of movement compensation.
link |
01:39:31.740
Anytime we start pressing to fatigue, let's be very concerned with there.
link |
01:39:35.440
So my initial recommendation is start with activities exercise choice wise that are mostly
link |
01:39:41.800
concentric based.
link |
01:39:43.160
So think about a cycle.
link |
01:39:44.540
So when you're riding on a bike, you're pushing the pedal, but you're never landing and absorbing
link |
01:39:48.740
it.
link |
01:39:49.740
So you could go out and do a 45 minute bike ride and you're not going to get that sore
link |
01:39:52.760
because there's not a lot of eccentric load.
link |
01:39:55.300
Swimming, similar thing here, right?
link |
01:39:57.800
There's some eccentrics when your hand hits the water, but fairly minimal.
link |
01:40:01.580
It's mostly a push, push, push, push, push, no load.
link |
01:40:04.940
Rowing, similar thing, mostly concentric.
link |
01:40:08.940
Pushing a sled is fantastic.
link |
01:40:11.560
Going uphill, running, or even walking hard uphill, all good because they're very minimal
link |
01:40:16.180
landing relative to like running downhill, which would be a very, very bad idea to start.
link |
01:40:21.640
So when you, if you're first jumping into these things, progress your volume for endurance
link |
01:40:27.840
very slowly if it involves eccentric landing.
link |
01:40:31.060
A really bad strategy would be to jump in and do say circuit training class that involves
link |
01:40:36.220
a bunch of box jumps, right?
link |
01:40:38.380
This is not a good way to do your first foray into conditioning.
link |
01:40:44.900
You're going to get incredibly sore because you're jumping and landing.
link |
01:40:48.060
You're now looking at three to 10 X body weight in terms of absorption with a single land,
link |
01:40:53.420
even if you're just jumping.
link |
01:40:55.000
So be careful of that in any of those endurance areas of exercise choice.
link |
01:41:01.000
So what to pick?
link |
01:41:02.640
Pick the one that you are most technically proficient in because you're going to do it
link |
01:41:05.420
a lot.
link |
01:41:06.420
It's going to be a lot of repetitions, whatever one you feel the most joy in.
link |
01:41:08.940
If that's rowing, great.
link |
01:41:09.940
If that's pushing a sled, it doesn't really matter.
link |
01:41:13.220
You can do this actually with weights.
link |
01:41:14.740
This is our preferred way, by the way, with our athletes.
link |
01:41:17.440
So we might do a 30 minute circuit where we do a five minute farmer's carry with a pretty
link |
01:41:22.940
light weight.
link |
01:41:23.940
So you're just going to carry some weights in your hand and you're just going to walk
link |
01:41:25.740
up and down the street for five minutes.
link |
01:41:26.980
You're going to set that down and then you're going to do say a three minute plank and then
link |
01:41:31.180
you're going to pick that up and you're going to do body weight squats, like slowly and
link |
01:41:34.900
just tempo.
link |
01:41:35.900
And you're going to do a handful of different exercises so the athletes don't get super
link |
01:41:38.660
bored or a very simple one, if a 30 minute workout, 10 minutes on a treadmill, 10 minutes
link |
01:41:44.700
on a bike, 10 minutes on a rower.
link |
01:41:46.740
For those of you that are like, oh my God, I can't do 30 straight minutes of running.
link |
01:41:49.820
Cool.
link |
01:41:50.820
Break it up into three or four different exercises that are all fairly safe.
link |
01:41:53.660
So that's how I would do that long duration piece for exercise choice.
link |
01:41:57.960
And then in terms of heart rate during that period, I mean, how much tension should we
link |
01:42:01.540
pay to this?
link |
01:42:02.540
The kind of very broad prescriptive I've thrown out on this podcast a few times based on my
link |
01:42:06.900
read of the literature is for most people that are oriented toward health, including
link |
01:42:10.600
people that are working on size and strength gains, hypertrophy and strength, of course,
link |
01:42:15.780
that getting 150 to 180 minutes of so-called zone two cardio, you know, can just barely
link |
01:42:22.420
have a conversation, but if one were to push any harder, you wouldn't be able to.
link |
01:42:25.300
That kind of thing.
link |
01:42:26.300
It's just a, as a sort of a generic recommendation that almost everybody should follow in order
link |
01:42:31.940
to just keep their cardiovascular system healthy.
link |
01:42:34.360
But I know there's a lot of nuance there and some people would like to be able to run continuously
link |
01:42:39.020
for an hour at speed, right?
link |
01:42:40.740
Um, obviously not sprinting, but what are some of the, um, finer, finer points on long
link |
01:42:47.260
distance endurance and how often should one do it?
link |
01:42:50.500
Okay.
link |
01:42:51.500
Um, obviously you could do it as daily, right?
link |
01:42:53.200
Even when strength, doing strength and hypertrophy.
link |
01:42:54.700
No question.
link |
01:42:55.700
Well, that I think is an important point for people to hear it because a lot of people
link |
01:42:57.680
think that they are going to greatly diminish their strength and hypertrophy gains as it's
link |
01:43:01.900
often called, um, by doing in zone two cardio.
link |
01:43:06.880
Zone two, you have almost no ability to block your hypertrophy.
link |
01:43:11.180
Zone two truly, if it's within that category, if you're talking about conversational pace,
link |
01:43:15.060
um, there is very, in fact, there's strong reason to think that is not going to influence
link |
01:43:19.900
hypertrophy for the overwhelming majority of people.
link |
01:43:22.900
It might even help it by increasing blood flow to the various, um, does it matter?
link |
01:43:28.040
Let's say someone's doing primarily strength and hypertrophy.
link |
01:43:30.740
Their primary goals are strength and hypertrophy, and then they're going to do, they're going
link |
01:43:35.180
to hit that 150 to 180 minutes of zone two cardio per week, assuming they're breaking
link |
01:43:38.740
that up into three or four sessions.
link |
01:43:40.460
Does it matter if they do it in the same workout before or after?
link |
01:43:44.180
Does that matter?
link |
01:43:45.180
Um, I tend to do just by way of example for people, certainly I'm just one, uh, one example.
link |
01:43:50.500
I tend to do, uh, resistance training one day.
link |
01:43:53.420
Then I'll do zone two cardio and the next day I jog cause that's the thing I prefer.
link |
01:43:56.980
Then I'll do strength hypertrophy training on the next day and then jog for my zone two
link |
01:44:01.500
cardio.
link |
01:44:02.500
And then I take one full day off a week.
link |
01:44:04.100
I've never actually done the zone two cardio on the same day, but were I to do it on the
link |
01:44:07.980
same day?
link |
01:44:09.720
Would it matter if I did it before or after my, my strength hypertrophy training?
link |
01:44:13.180
Not really.
link |
01:44:14.180
You're going to be just fine.
link |
01:44:15.260
Interference effects.
link |
01:44:16.260
The interference effect is what this is called.
link |
01:44:18.380
So this is all the way back to 1980, uh, Bob Hickman stuff, right?
link |
01:44:22.740
And he was actually working in a lab with John Halazi, who's one of the fathers of exercise
link |
01:44:28.340
biochemistry and the sort of the story goes that, uh, Hickman came in, he was a strength
link |
01:44:33.100
training guy and Halazi and almost all those initial exercise physiologists were conditioning
link |
01:44:37.660
folks, right?
link |
01:44:38.660
So it's almost always swimmers and runners and that's why a bulk of the exercise physiology
link |
01:44:43.220
historically is, is shaped in that direction.
link |
01:44:45.620
That's what those scientists were interested in.
link |
01:44:47.740
So Hickman was there in the lab and then the, how much of this is myth or not, who really
link |
01:44:52.660
knows?
link |
01:44:53.660
But so the story goes, um, that this is sort of chipping back and forth and you know how
link |
01:44:58.100
from a PI to a postdoc and kind of that razzing works a little bit and eventually he was like,
link |
01:45:03.260
you got to start running with us and he was like, you got to start lifting with me and
link |
01:45:05.980
kind of goes back and forth.
link |
01:45:06.980
Well, you know who wins in that equation.
link |
01:45:08.600
It's not the postdoc, right?
link |
01:45:10.020
So it's the PI gets in and says, Hickman says, okay, fine.
link |
01:45:13.100
So he starts running with Halazi and then eventually starts to realize I'm getting weak.
link |
01:45:17.100
I'm losing strength and I just can't, I think it was his bench press specifically was going
link |
01:45:20.700
down or maybe a squat.
link |
01:45:21.700
I can't remember.
link |
01:45:22.700
Who knows if it's even real, but point is, so he's going along and so eventually starts
link |
01:45:28.020
to create a little bit of animosity and it's like, actually I don't think it's good for
link |
01:45:31.340
me and then blah, blah, blah.
link |
01:45:32.340
And so they did what any good scientists would do and said, well, let's find out.
link |
01:45:36.620
Right?
link |
01:45:37.620
And so they, he run a really famous experiment where he took a group, three groups.
link |
01:45:41.940
One group did a endurance piece, right?
link |
01:45:44.380
The steady state cardio.
link |
01:45:45.540
One group did a strength training piece and then the third group did both of those workouts
link |
01:45:49.140
combined.
link |
01:45:50.140
Not like a reduction.
link |
01:45:51.140
So both volumes stacked on top of each other and the results are fairly predictable in
link |
01:45:56.420
terms of the endurance group only had the greatest increases in VO2 max and endurance
link |
01:46:01.520
markers.
link |
01:46:02.520
The strength training group had the greatest increases in muscle hypertrophy.
link |
01:46:05.940
But where the interesting part was and where this whole field started was the combined
link |
01:46:09.860
group.
link |
01:46:10.860
So concurrent training is what it's generally called.
link |
01:46:12.420
So you're doing concurrent things and typically that means hypertrophy and strength stacked
link |
01:46:16.700
on top of some in steady state endurance in the same, same, same workout, two hour block
link |
01:46:22.040
or same like week.
link |
01:46:23.460
It doesn't really make it can be kind of all these.
link |
01:46:26.820
Well, the concurrent group saw the same improvements in VO2 max as the endurance group.
link |
01:46:35.300
And he's like, well, okay.
link |
01:46:36.300
So the strength training did not compromise the endurance adaptations.
link |
01:46:39.820
However, they saw much lower increases in strength and hypertrophy.
link |
01:46:45.060
And so it was the conclusion was the addition of endurance work compromised muscle growth
link |
01:46:52.620
and strength development.
link |
01:46:53.620
However, the addition of strength training to your endurance work will not compromise
link |
01:46:57.280
your endurance gains.
link |
01:46:59.100
Now that second piece has been shown countless more times, right?
link |
01:47:02.680
So if you're an endurance athlete, adding strength training is almost always going to
link |
01:47:07.140
be massively beneficial.
link |
01:47:09.020
Very little chance of detriment is why every endurance athlete is going to have some sort
link |
01:47:12.880
of strength and power component to their training.
link |
01:47:15.640
The controversy though, came in the interference effects.
link |
01:47:18.020
So how much endurance training really blocks muscular development.
link |
01:47:21.680
And for years, myself included, was we preached hard, you know, don't, don't do these two
link |
01:47:26.460
things at the same time.
link |
01:47:29.060
My friend, my colleague, Kevin Murek has a really nice review article, Jimmy Bagley.
link |
01:47:32.720
Those two guys put this thing out.
link |
01:47:33.720
You can go read that where they cover all these things and they've got some nice figures
link |
01:47:37.420
in there.
link |
01:47:38.420
And the general answer here is interference effect is sort of real, but it's probably
link |
01:47:43.400
greatly overblown.
link |
01:47:45.400
It matters.
link |
01:47:46.400
So are you talking about a 20 minute jog at conversation pace?
link |
01:47:49.820
That's probably doing very little with the assumption that are you doing an eccentric
link |
01:47:54.780
based exercise like running?
link |
01:47:56.020
Well, then you're going to have more of an interference effect than cycling.
link |
01:47:59.320
That makes a ton of sense if you think about it, right?
link |
01:48:02.600
What's your total energy intake.
link |
01:48:04.400
If you're eating sufficient calories, you can still be in an anabolic state.
link |
01:48:07.580
If the addition of extra energy expenditure, that's all it really is, mark the cardio,
link |
01:48:13.660
put you in a negative energy state, it's been, it's going to become very difficult to go
link |
01:48:17.300
through anabolism.
link |
01:48:18.900
So those things matter.
link |
01:48:20.820
If you're talking about doing like running a few laps around the track as a warmup, like
link |
01:48:25.820
that's not interference effect.
link |
01:48:27.180
What we're really talking about is a big volume performed consistently.
link |
01:48:31.580
Now after Hickman came out with this pater paper in 1980, people followed it up in the
link |
01:48:35.580
90s and 2000s with mechanism.
link |
01:48:38.380
And we started to look and see, we started to see, hey, there's this cell signaling pathway
link |
01:48:43.180
that goes down called mTOR and that's what leads to muscle growth.
link |
01:48:47.140
And then on the other side of that equation, there's a thing called AMPK, which is more
link |
01:48:50.680
associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and endurance.
link |
01:48:54.520
And there's this little molecule in between at the time, most people would point to TSC2.
link |
01:48:59.220
Well, turns out AMPK activation is fine.
link |
01:49:03.560
If you activate mTOR, there's no bearing on AMPK, but if you activate AMPK, it's going
link |
01:49:09.220
to activate TSC2, which inhibited mTOR.
link |
01:49:11.900
And so it was like we had practical outcome, i.e. Hickman, you're going to get weaker.
link |
01:49:17.860
Now we had mechanism.
link |
01:49:18.860
So that story became very, very strong that this interference effect, and this is how
link |
01:49:22.780
science should work, right?
link |
01:49:23.780
When you see mechanism match up with practical human outcome, it's a strong thing.
link |
01:49:27.260
That's what you want.
link |
01:49:28.260
Yep.
link |
01:49:29.260
It was still wrong though.
link |
01:49:31.060
It just took more science, right?
link |
01:49:32.060
And this is why we always have to give science a bit of time.
link |
01:49:35.460
And you have to be willing to follow, right?
link |
01:49:38.980
And again, even me in the field who has a practitioner background in science, I felt
link |
01:49:44.020
very strongly, this is a big problem.
link |
01:49:46.740
It just didn't turn out to be the case.
link |
01:49:48.340
Enough studies came out where I'm like, okay, it's probably not that big a deal.
link |
01:49:52.620
Unless the movement is heavily eccentric based, the volume is very high, you're trying to
link |
01:49:57.860
maximize muscle growth and energy is not controlled.
link |
01:50:02.340
If that's not all the case, interference effect is probably not something most people should
link |
01:50:07.620
worry about.
link |
01:50:08.620
Especially when you compare that against the well-roundedness that you need for total physiological
link |
01:50:14.420
health.
link |
01:50:15.420
Probably not a big deal.
link |
01:50:17.780
Very reassuring for me to hear because I do enjoy lifting weights and I really enjoy running
link |
01:50:22.900
and I love running outside.
link |
01:50:24.460
I believe I used to experience the interference effect when I used to do a very long run on
link |
01:50:28.820
Sundays.
link |
01:50:29.820
I would just go out for two hours or something like that.
link |
01:50:32.900
I don't know that I ate enough or who knows.
link |
01:50:35.300
I always feel like I eat enough or more.
link |
01:50:37.340
I love to eat.
link |
01:50:39.200
But that long Sunday run always made it hard for me to make progressive gains in strength
link |
01:50:47.820
and hypertrophy in the gym.
link |
01:50:49.340
Whereas when I cut that to 30 minutes, three or four times a week, I don't see any interference
link |
01:50:54.660
effect at all.
link |
01:50:55.660
Probably very real.
link |
01:50:56.660
And I haven't trained specifically for endurance in a very long time, so I haven't experienced
link |
01:51:01.060
the non-interference effect, which as you said before, most, if not all endurance athletes
link |
01:51:06.100
probably are or at least should be doing some sort of strength work just to keep the undercarriage
link |
01:51:09.780
strong as I think.
link |
01:51:10.780
Yeah, there's a bunch of reasons.
link |
01:51:14.300
So what are some protocols that people could explore for continuous endurance training?
link |
01:51:19.580
I mean, I've thrown out this 150 to 180 minute zone two cardio, but that's really the kind
link |
01:51:24.380
of kindergarten of endurance.
link |
01:51:26.820
And there I'm probably being generous.
link |
01:51:27.820
It's probably the nursery school of endurance that everyone should do.
link |
01:51:31.460
What sorts of other protocols, I realize that can be very goal-directed, but is it unreasonable
link |
01:51:35.460
for instance, for somebody to do four hours of continuous endurance training with intervals
link |
01:51:42.460
in there as well to get it kind of all around heart health and the ability to go long distances?
link |
01:51:47.740
Yeah.
link |
01:51:48.740
I'll answer this too.
link |
01:51:49.740
Is the very first one to tackle the long duration endurance is how I ever heard of it.
link |
01:51:54.700
You asked really about heart rate zones.
link |
01:51:56.480
To me, that's almost totally irrelevant.
link |
01:51:59.040
It doesn't matter, right?
link |
01:52:00.040
If you're moving, you're moving.
link |
01:52:01.540
That's the functional piece here.
link |
01:52:04.280
If you want to push it and go at a non-conversational pace, that has tremendous health benefits.
link |
01:52:09.260
If you want to do it a little bit slower, fine.
link |
01:52:11.840
If you're at the pace where you can have a conversation, to me, I don't even count that
link |
01:52:14.580
as exercise.
link |
01:52:15.880
That's not a pejorative, by the way.
link |
01:52:18.560
That is just general physical movement and it is extraordinarily clear.
link |
01:52:22.340
You need a lot of that.
link |
01:52:23.960
You need a lot more of that than we get.
link |
01:52:26.420
You can do this in a couple of efficient ways.
link |
01:52:28.780
Just taking your phone calls moving.
link |
01:52:30.980
If you've got a 30 minute call every day or most days of the week and you can do that
link |
01:52:34.260
while moving, you've checked not that whole box, but a pretty good chunk of it.
link |
01:52:38.620
And that could even be done inside, pacing back and forth.
link |
01:52:42.020
I'm a big pacer.
link |
01:52:43.020
Yeah, me too.
link |
01:52:44.020
Like you probably saw me, like I'm going to walk up and down all over the place.
link |
01:52:47.900
Most of the time when I'm in my office working, I'm shadowboxing, like I'm doing air squats.
link |
01:52:52.660
Not even intentionally.
link |
01:52:53.660
I'm just like...
link |
01:52:54.660
Do you have one of those treadmills under the dust?
link |
01:52:55.780
I don't, but like every lab I ever came through, somebody did.
link |
01:52:59.200
We did an episode on workspace optimization and the data on those treadmills are pretty
link |
01:53:03.180
interesting.
link |
01:53:04.180
They definitely increase alertness, which for obvious reasons, even a little bit of
link |
01:53:08.160
movement is going to generate a little bit of adrenaline.
link |
01:53:12.740
So pacing around, moving, taking calls, moving, getting walks when you can.
link |
01:53:17.080
And then in terms of building endurance, let's say somebody wants to quote unquote get into
link |
01:53:20.820
better shape.
link |
01:53:22.700
They already may or may not already have some size and strength that they're happy with
link |
01:53:27.380
and they just want to get in.
link |
01:53:28.380
They want to improve their health.
link |
01:53:29.780
So when does that 150, 180 minute thing tick over into a different protocol?
link |
01:53:34.900
Yeah.
link |
01:53:35.900
I think the way that I can outline a weekly schedule, just as a conceptual model here,
link |
01:53:42.260
that long duration stuff is not even counting, as I mentioned, right?
link |
01:53:45.140
It's just a, this is what you need to do as a human moving forward.
link |
01:53:47.780
We haven't improved.
link |
01:53:49.220
If you're extremely unfit, you may see some changes in cardiovascular health there, but
link |
01:53:53.100
for the most part, this is just knocking out the general physical practice.
link |
01:53:56.020
You need to be higher functioning.
link |
01:53:57.980
So whatever that time domain is, I don't really care.
link |
01:54:00.780
It's not a huge concern of mine.
link |
01:54:02.980
What I think you need to hit are these nodes.
link |
01:54:04.820
You need to do something once a week that gets you to a maximum heart rate.
link |
01:54:08.780
Now I don't have to literally mean max, but close.
link |
01:54:11.140
So this means really sucking for air?
link |
01:54:13.940
Really.
link |
01:54:14.940
Like as high as you can possibly get.
link |
01:54:16.160
You can wear a heart rate monitor if you want, but maximum heart rate, the rough equation
link |
01:54:20.180
we say is 220 minus your age.
link |
01:54:22.560
So if you're 40 years old, your maximum heart rate is probably about 180 beats per minute.
link |
01:54:28.000
Now I can tell you flat out right now, my max heart rate is close to 210, which means
link |
01:54:33.940
I'm 10 years old.
link |
01:54:36.300
So take that number with a grain of salt.
link |
01:54:38.020
I have had a bunch of professional athletes who are in their twenties and their max heart
link |
01:54:42.340
rate is 175 and they are in way better shape than I am.
link |
01:54:45.620
So maximum heart rate is not a good proxy for physical fitness.
link |
01:54:49.040
It's a rough number.
link |
01:54:50.040
An easy way to do it is if you have a heart rate monitor or anything like that, do the
link |
01:54:53.320
hardest workout you can possibly do.
link |
01:54:55.900
See what the highest number you get as and assume that's close.
link |
01:54:58.940
If you want to just start at 220 minus your age, that's fine too.
link |
01:55:02.060
Do something though where you're like, yep, this is death.
link |
01:55:05.340
Like this is really, really challenging.
link |
01:55:07.140
For how long?
link |
01:55:08.500
However long that takes you.
link |
01:55:09.700
That can be a 30 second go on an aerodyne or an air assault bike.
link |
01:55:13.260
That could be a, do one of those things where you kind of like sprint, run as hard as you
link |
01:55:20.820
can during the straightaway on a track and then walk the corners.
link |
01:55:23.100
Kind of an old classic back when you and I were kids, interval training.
link |
01:55:26.740
They don't do that anymore?
link |
01:55:27.860
I guess.
link |
01:55:28.860
I don't know.
link |
01:55:29.860
I don't even talk about it.
link |
01:55:30.860
It's a big change and if you didn't bring running shoes, you had to do it barefoot.
link |
01:55:33.740
Oh, I love it.
link |
01:55:34.740
And I love your teacher.
link |
01:55:36.140
Yeah.
link |
01:55:37.140
It wasn't a, our football, basketball, baseball teams weren't that good, but anything like
link |
01:55:41.980
running cross country just because of where I grew up, brutal, brutal coaches.
link |
01:55:46.180
So that yeah, they'd make the all kids do these runs.
link |
01:55:49.060
Yep.
link |
01:55:50.060
So it can be in the 30 probably seconds at a minimum.
link |
01:55:53.780
It's hard to get you to a true heart rate max in shorter than 30 seconds.
link |
01:55:57.640
You can get the total suck in under 20 seconds, but getting to a true heart rate max is probably
link |
01:56:02.780
going to take more than 30 seconds.
link |
01:56:04.180
So it doesn't really matter what you want to do.
link |
01:56:07.060
It can be again, a sprint uphill.
link |
01:56:09.700
It could be, well, you're talking, it could be burpees to death, you know, like whatever,
link |
01:56:13.340
whatever you want to do.
link |
01:56:14.340
Those have an eccentric component, right?
link |
01:56:15.820
Yeah, they do.
link |
01:56:16.820
Yeah.
link |
01:56:17.820
No question about it.
link |
01:56:19.100
But if you did...
link |
01:56:20.100
Not to actual death, by the way.
link |
01:56:22.640
If you just did, I'm going to do as many burpees as I can for 90 seconds, it probably won't
link |
01:56:26.560
take you much longer than that to get to close to max.
link |
01:56:28.580
And is that the whole workout?
link |
01:56:30.020
Could be.
link |
01:56:31.020
So once a week, get to max heart rate.
link |
01:56:33.060
Touch it.
link |
01:56:34.060
I love it.
link |
01:56:35.060
Touch it.
link |
01:56:36.060
It's not the best, but it'll, it'll work.
link |
01:56:37.700
And what are the specific benefits that that provides?
link |
01:56:40.300
Okay.
link |
01:56:41.300
So earlier in our, in our chat, we were, we outlined the rule of specificity, specific
link |
01:56:47.180
adaptation to impose demand.
link |
01:56:49.460
If you're never getting to that high of a pace, you're never, it would be like trying
link |
01:56:53.340
to get stronger, but only going to 60%.
link |
01:56:56.000
So every cardiovascular adaptation that occurs with cardiovascular training is just simply
link |
01:56:59.900
going to get to the topper end by doing this.
link |
01:57:01.760
So if you just start at the heart itself, stroke volume increases, this is the amount
link |
01:57:05.420
of blood that's kicked out per contraction, cardiac output, resting heart rate.
link |
01:57:11.540
If you go to the endothelial function, you're talking about nitric oxide release, endothelial
link |
01:57:15.300
health in general, capillary, mitochondria, all the way down, like you just walk through
link |
01:57:21.700
the whole system, pulmonary exchange to the lungs.
link |
01:57:24.460
All of those are going to benefit by being challenged to their maximum.
link |
01:57:27.860
They also teach you where your vomit reflex is.
link |
01:57:30.020
Yeah, there you go.
link |
01:57:31.020
All right.
link |
01:57:32.020
Let's hope not.
link |
01:57:33.020
Stress is what causes adaptation, right?
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01:57:34.220
So if you push your, okay, here's the difference.
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01:57:36.780
If you did 25 minutes of steady state, you're not challenging the same thing as what we
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01:57:41.600
just talked about.
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01:57:43.140
The way that I explained this is if you understand the point, the point of physiological failure,
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01:57:48.420
then you understand the place of adaptation.
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01:57:51.140
That's it.
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01:57:52.140
So if you and I both go run on a, we did a both did a VO2 max test.
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01:57:55.620
So a classic VO2 max test is going to take 8 to 12 minutes and it's going to look something
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01:57:59.580
like this.
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01:58:00.580
We're going to get in a treadmill and we're going to run.
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01:58:03.660
And every minute I'm going to just slightly increase that treadmill, either the speed
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01:58:07.180
or the grade.
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01:58:08.180
Most of the time it's the speed, right?
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01:58:09.420
So we get to a high grade, say 10% grade or something.
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01:58:12.580
And then we go five miles per hour, 5.2, 5.4, and we just go until you can't go any longer.
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01:58:21.820
Now let's say you and I did that and we had the same exact timeframe.
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01:58:24.900
And so we both went eight minutes.
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01:58:26.820
The time that you last is not the thing that we care about, right?
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01:58:29.420
It's the volume of oxygen that you breathe out is what determines it.
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01:58:32.700
So let's say we went with the same time domain and we had the same VO2 max.
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01:58:35.420
Let's say they were both 50 milliliters per kilogram per minute, which is like a okay
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01:58:40.260
number but that's nothing to be extremely proud about.
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01:58:44.940
Just because we have the same number does not mean we have the same point of physiological
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01:58:48.020
failure.
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01:58:49.020
And this matters because it's going to answer the what do I do about it then question, right?
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01:58:53.580
So if you got off and I started asking you a series of questions and you're like, I basically
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01:58:58.220
said, why'd you quit?
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01:58:59.220
You know, why did you jump off the treadmill?
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01:59:00.820
Why'd you stop?
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01:59:01.820
And you were like, my chest, like I couldn't catch my breath.
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01:59:04.700
I thought my heart was going to explode.
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01:59:07.180
Okay, great.
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01:59:08.440
If you asked me and I said, my legs were on fire, like I was breathing hard, but I couldn't
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01:59:13.060
take another step.
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01:59:15.500
This is a very rough indicator of different places of physiological disruption.
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01:59:19.940
Now what I've seen a lot with my professional athletes, especially like fighters, they're
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01:59:24.940
going to generally fail in their legs because they don't often do a lot of strength training
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01:59:28.500
in their legs.
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01:59:29.500
They don't do a lot of leg work.
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01:59:30.500
They're fighting on their back, literally a lot or on top or on their knees.
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01:59:34.660
So their legs tend to give out before they're.
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01:59:37.960
Someone who fails in the cardiovascular system, like say you did a lot of leg training, typically
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01:59:42.060
like an endurance athlete, that's not going to be their issue.
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01:59:45.040
This is going to be, they're going to reach a heart rate and ventilation threshold that's
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01:59:48.160
they can no longer handle.
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01:59:50.900
If I put you on the exact same training protocols, it's not going to be as effective because
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01:59:55.420
you're going to always fail at your legs and they're going to always fail at their cardiovascular
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01:59:59.660
system.
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02:00:00.660
I need to flip that, right?
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02:00:01.660
You need to put you in a position to where you can reach a true heart rate or ventilation
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02:00:06.540
challenge while your legs are still hanging in there or the opposite.
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02:00:11.500
So the training protocol is based on that point of failure.
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02:00:16.200
The adaptation is in the same thing.
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02:00:17.860
So if you are failing because of your legs, then you might see a greater increase in capitalization
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02:00:24.020
in your legs.
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02:00:25.020
Relative to somebody else who's failing in their cardiovascular system, they may see
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02:00:29.140
a greater change in something on that side of the equation.
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02:00:32.040
So that it matters how you're failing at all times.
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02:00:35.620
What I love about this is that it's, it's sounds like it's like a thermometer for where
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02:00:40.260
one is weak and needs work, but also provides a stimulus to improve the very thing that
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02:00:44.920
you need.
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02:00:45.920
That's the trick.
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02:00:47.160
So to just get real brass tacks about it, it would be once a week, 90 seconds near maximum
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02:00:55.320
heart rate.
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02:00:56.320
Could I do more?
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02:00:57.320
Could I, you know, could I do five or six of those 90 second bouts?
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02:01:00.780
No question.
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02:01:01.780
You can do, as long as you touch that max heart rate, I'm good, right?
link |
02:01:05.620
Ideal world, probably four to eight.
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02:01:07.700
In that single session.
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02:01:08.700
Ideal.
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02:01:09.700
So if that takes you 20 seconds or 90 seconds, it's fine.
link |
02:01:13.140
If you want to do 30 on 30 off, you want to do 20 on 40 off 40 on 20 off, those numbers
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02:01:18.180
don't matter.
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02:01:19.180
And is there an interference effect of this on the other sorts of training that we've
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02:01:21.940
talked about?
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02:01:22.940
It actually tends to be complimentary.
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02:01:23.940
There, there is the, the evidence available suggests that this high interval stuff is,
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02:01:28.220
is more likely to be complimentary to hypertrophy training probably because of lactate and some
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02:01:33.500
other cool things which are very beneficial molecules that people don't understand.
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02:01:38.060
They think it's bad.
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02:01:39.060
It's a hugely, a hugely beneficial thing.
link |
02:01:41.780
It can be interference, it can provide an interference if calories are not accounted
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02:01:46.860
for, if rest is not accounted for and other things.
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02:01:48.820
But in general it's, it's probably okay.
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02:01:51.100
I wouldn't add it to your equation if you don't need it for maximizing hypertrophy,
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02:01:56.060
but for the person who wants to just get well-rounded physiology, yeah, I wouldn't hesitate to do
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02:02:00.500
these even in the same session or different sessions.
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02:02:03.220
Terrific.
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02:02:04.220
So, and if that's done once a week and the 150 to 180 minutes or so of zone two cardio
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02:02:09.820
is done, you know, in the rest of the week, the person's doing their strength and hypertrophy
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02:02:14.420
training, we would hope.
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02:02:17.340
What other sorts of endurance practices could one incorporate?
link |
02:02:20.140
You mentioned muscular endurance, like the ability, would like a wall sit or the ability
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02:02:24.300
to do a plank.
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02:02:25.300
Was that, is that something that, is that useful for anything?
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02:02:27.740
Yes.
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02:02:28.740
Is that doing planks and wall sitting?
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02:02:30.340
No, no.
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02:02:31.340
It's extraordinarily useful.
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02:02:32.340
Let's hold on muscular endurance.
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02:02:34.420
I want to finish one more thing on this side.
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02:02:36.580
So if we're building this week of endurance, once a week hit that number, if you can do
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02:02:42.620
repeated bouts, you know, we talked four to eight, that's fantastic.
link |
02:02:47.120
If you can't muscle the, the, if you can't manage the mental energy every week, do it
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02:02:53.940
every other week.
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02:02:55.620
It's still very good, right?
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02:02:56.620
Because I, I get it.
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02:02:57.620
Like I'm a working person too and sometimes you're just like, I cannot, like those workouts
link |
02:03:01.900
feel incredible afterwards, but man, they are daunting.
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02:03:05.180
If you love this stuff, you could do it four times a week.
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02:03:07.120
If you hate it though, it's not realistic to think you're going to be able to knock
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02:03:09.840
this out.
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02:03:10.840
You're going to end up doing 70, 80%, which is not going to get you the benefits.
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02:03:14.340
So just don't do it.
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02:03:15.340
You really have to hit that ceiling.
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02:03:16.620
You got to get up there.
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02:03:17.620
Close.
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02:03:18.620
Have someone chase.
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02:03:19.620
I always say, you know, the, when doing this, this kind of work in, in my mind, I'm thinking
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02:03:25.020
that I'm basically being chased by somebody with a, with a syringe full of poison.
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02:03:29.020
Yep.
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02:03:30.020
You know, get your waterways out of the situation and for the benefit of what we're talking
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02:03:32.620
about, the one I'm referring to is to just run.
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02:03:35.660
Yeah.
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02:03:36.660
Yeah.
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02:03:37.660
My motivation is typically, if you just get this done, we're done in a couple of minutes.
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02:03:42.180
Just get it done.
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02:03:43.180
Like, don't go here if you're not going to do it, but when you show up, check in and
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02:03:46.860
it's over really quickly.
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02:03:48.220
Breathing down regulation afterwards.
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02:03:50.180
100%.
link |
02:03:51.180
You have to, right?
link |
02:03:52.180
It's a huge key.
link |
02:03:53.240
So if you absolutely can't do it, do it every other week.
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02:03:55.140
That's twice a month.
link |
02:03:56.140
Give me twice a month.
link |
02:03:58.060
Can be done on the road.
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02:03:59.060
Can be done at 20 minutes, like do a really good, thorough warmup.
link |
02:04:02.540
Don't just jump into those by the way, right away.
link |
02:04:04.460
It's not going to be as beneficial.
link |
02:04:06.840
Really nice, good sweat broke, a really good warmup and then give me four minutes of hard
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02:04:11.140
work and we're done.
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02:04:12.140
Right?
link |
02:04:13.140
Get out of there.
link |
02:04:14.140
If you want to use like a bath or hot thermal stress to kind of like aid in that warmup
link |
02:04:17.900
process, fine.
link |
02:04:18.900
Getting the sauna and getting a hot bath, get really hot, get up there, warm up, knock
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02:04:22.580
it out.
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02:04:23.580
Whole thing is 20 minutes plus five minutes breathing.
link |
02:04:25.220
Got it.
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02:04:26.220
I'm going to start doing this.
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02:04:27.500
It's so bad.
link |
02:04:28.500
There's a bike right there.
link |
02:04:29.500
Yeah, I've got every room in this studio that has a different piece of equipment it seems.
link |
02:04:34.460
So I want that once a week, realistically every week if I have to.
link |
02:04:37.820
I want that physical activity piece, call it whatever you want, long duration thing.
link |
02:04:42.340
Ideally you'll do as much of that through your nose only.
link |
02:04:45.460
You're not going to be able to do the interval stuff at nose only, don't even try.
link |
02:04:49.260
But if you can go that whole 30 minute time or 20 or 40 minutes, whatever it's going to
link |
02:04:52.780
be, that's actually a good way to regulate intensity.
link |
02:04:55.820
So go as hard as you can while still being able to breathe through your nose only.
link |
02:04:58.420
If you have to open up your mouth a little bit, fine, but try to stay there.
link |
02:05:02.780
What you'll see is very quickly, you'll be able to increase your work output while just
link |
02:05:07.420
breathing through your nose, which has a bunch of other benefits.
link |
02:05:10.780
The other piece I want is this middle ground, which is, can you sustain hard work for eight
link |
02:05:18.480
to 12, maybe as little as four minutes, I'll give you four to 12 minutes.
link |
02:05:22.180
This doesn't have to be quite as high as the first one.
link |
02:05:25.420
You don't have to get to a heart rate max, but can you get somewhere in the 80% range
link |
02:05:30.740
and can you hold that for four minutes?
link |
02:05:33.140
Maybe give me two minutes, two minutes of rest and do that twice.
link |
02:05:37.940
Something like that.
link |
02:05:39.300
Ideal situation is what a runner would do is like what we'll call mile repeats because
link |
02:05:43.500
they're running four or five minute miles.
link |
02:05:46.180
Whatever time it takes them to finish, they're going to rest that.
link |
02:05:48.680
So it's a one to one work to rest ratio.
link |
02:05:50.260
So a five minute mile rest five minutes and go again.
link |
02:05:54.460
That's probably pretty unrealistic for a lot of folks.
link |
02:05:56.500
Well, the five minute part is unrealistic for most folks.
link |
02:05:59.180
For me, it would be, you know, eight minutes, eight minutes, fine.
link |
02:06:03.080
Probably something like that.
link |
02:06:04.080
Well, in your particular case, just do the 800 meter.
link |
02:06:07.020
So do 800 meters, do something that takes two to six minutes of work.
link |
02:06:12.600
It is a lower intensity than the max stuff, but it's a much higher workload.
link |
02:06:17.700
That is probably going to give you, you might even argue the most cardiovascular benefit
link |
02:06:22.060
because it is sustained work output and that's very critical.
link |
02:06:25.460
The downside of kind of like that conversational pace, it's physical activity, it's movement,
link |
02:06:31.580
it's blood flow, it's lymphatic drainage.
link |
02:06:33.300
It's not very cardiovascularly challenging though.
link |
02:06:35.900
You're just not going to get an optimal health from just walking actively.
link |
02:06:41.700
So two to six minutes of hard work of hard work with an equivalent amount of rest in
link |
02:06:46.660
between and then repeat how many times?
link |
02:06:50.380
Twice if you have to, if it needs to be one rep, if it needs to be a six minute thing
link |
02:06:53.660
and then downregulate, breathe.
link |
02:06:55.820
Twice if you can do that, six times, eight times, like whatever you can really do.
link |
02:06:59.700
And you can just take that as long of the training session as you want or short.
link |
02:07:06.180
Exercise choice can be whatever you want.
link |
02:07:07.460
So again, you can do sled pushes or it could be a kettlebell circuit or any combination
link |
02:07:12.380
of things where you're just, you're working and you're not giving yourself a break.
link |
02:07:15.540
You have got to be able to hold on at a very high waste product production level as well
link |
02:07:21.060
as a high demand for energy and then bring it down.
link |
02:07:26.500
And breathing during this two to six minutes of hard output is mainly through the nose
link |
02:07:32.800
or combination nose and mouth or is that getting too technical?
link |
02:07:35.140
Well, it's probably like I like it, but you tell me if it's too technical.
link |
02:07:39.220
You're going to try to maintain nasal only as much as you can, but you're going to lose
link |
02:07:41.620
it at some point.
link |
02:07:45.020
You can go through Brian and Rob's gear system and learn more and you can kind of see what
link |
02:07:49.660
gear to be in.
link |
02:07:50.660
If you have to go nose in, mouth out or something like that, but I don't really care too much
link |
02:07:55.100
honestly in that range.
link |
02:07:56.300
I'm getting most of my nasal only stuff at night and training and everything.
link |
02:08:01.720
So if you have to open up the throttle there to get the work done, that's okay.
link |
02:08:05.620
Oh, then we'll actually go to your answer your question, which is muscular endurance.
link |
02:08:10.540
Let's go back to that piece.
link |
02:08:13.500
Muscular endurance is incredibly important for general maintenance of joint health.
link |
02:08:17.100
In other words, you have got form follows function, right?
link |
02:08:22.820
It's a very classic science-y physiology saying, meaning you've got a couple of different,
link |
02:08:27.340
there's a bunch, but to make it easy, two different types of muscle fibers, fast twitch
link |
02:08:31.060
and slow twitch.
link |
02:08:32.580
Fast twitch fibers tend to be, but they're not always bigger.
link |
02:08:35.800
They contract with a higher velocity.
link |
02:08:37.300
That's why they are called fast twitch, but they tend to be more glycolytic and thus fatigueable.
link |
02:08:43.060
Slow twitch are tend to be smaller or not always.
link |
02:08:47.340
They are more packed with mitochondria that we're generally better at burning fat as fuel,
link |
02:08:51.120
but contract with lower velocity.
link |
02:08:52.540
Well, we have these two types so that we can regulate function more.
link |
02:08:57.580
You have some muscle groups that we're going to, sorry, let me go back up a quick second.
link |
02:09:02.900
Each individual muscle in a human body has a combination of some amount of fast and some
link |
02:09:06.600
amount of slow.
link |
02:09:08.080
That percentage of fast versus slow differs from muscle to muscle.
link |
02:09:11.500
So it also differs from person to person.
link |
02:09:14.700
Easy example is your calf muscle.
link |
02:09:17.020
There's three, but there's two primary muscles in your calf.
link |
02:09:19.380
One's called the soleus and one's the gastroc.
link |
02:09:22.100
The gastroc is the one where if you take your toe and point it towards your face and then
link |
02:09:25.980
flex, that's the one that pops out on the medial side, the inside.
link |
02:09:30.540
The soleus is what we call an anti-gravity muscle.
link |